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Cotton production technology
 

Recommended Approved Varieties 

 

                       CORE ZONE
 

Early maturing Medium Late
CLCV Resistant CLCV Tolerant CLCV Resistant CLCV Tolerant
  Karishma FH-900 BH-36
CIM-443 NIAB-78 FVH-53  
  CIM-109 CIM-448  
CIM-482   MNH-554  
MNH-552   BH-118  
    CIM1100  


                                         NON-CORE ZONE

Early maturing Medium Late
CLCV Resistant CLCV Tolerant CLCV Resistant DESI Varieties
FH-901 Karishma FH-900 Ravi
CIM-443   FH-634 FDH-170
      Rohi

 

 

 

    Land Preparation:

To obtain adequate plant stand

 

      The land - free of stubbles, clods and well pulverized.
Deep ploughing – In soil that restricts plant growth
Green manuring 25-35 days before planting.
Field properly leveled - for uniform application of irrigation
Single Rouni: Deeply ploughed or green manured fields
Double Rouni: Fallow fields or After wheat crop

Sowing methods  

 

        Flat sowing with alternate furrows after first irrigation.  

§         Bed furrow sowing    

 

Plant population:

Flat  Sowing & Alternate Earthing-up:

          25,000 to 30,000 plants/ Ac                   

Bed Furrow Sowing:

          (Plant to plant spacing-6 to 9 inches)

 

 Seed Rate
 

GERMINATION

%AGE

DELINTED SEED (Kg/Ac)

75 & Above

8

60

10

50

12

 

Seed treatment with suitable pesticide is recommended to provide control of sucking pests during early crop growth.

 

Arrange 10% more seed for replanting due to any unforeseen reason

 

 Delinting:

 

Type of Acid

Quantity

Commercial Sulfuric Acid

1 liter for 10 Kg fuzzy seed

  Sowing Time:

 A.        Pak-Upland Cotton:

1.      Non-Core Area:

Faisalabad, T.T. Singh,                        Month of May

Jhang, Sahiwal, Okara

Kasur, Pakpattan

 

Layyah, Bhakkar,

Mianwali Khushab                                  Mid April

(to avoid desiccating hot windstorms)

2.                  Core- Area:

Multan, Khanewal,                                           

Vehari, Lodhran,

Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur,                May to Mid June

D.G. Khan, Rajanpur,                                

Muzaffargarh, R.Y. Khan,              

 

3.                  Desi Cotton

Lahore Division                                                            2nd fortnight of April

Mianwali & Khushab

 

I Irrigation

 

Varieties

1st Irrigation

(Days after sowing)

Subsequent Irrigation (Days)

Last Irrigation

FH-901, CIM-443, CIM-482, MNH552, NIAB-78 CIM-109, Karishma

30-40

15-21

Up to 30 September

FH-900, CIM-448, CIM-446, FVH-53, BH-36,

40-50

15-21

Up to 5 October

BH-118, MNH-554, CIM-1100, FH-634,

50-60

15-21

Up to 5 October

 Fertilizers:

Nitrogen:

 

Varieties

Dose

Varieties:

Medium

FH-900, CIM448, FVH-53, MNH-554, BH-36, BH-118, CIM-1100, FH-634

34-46 Kg/ac

Early

FH-901, CIM-443, CIM446, MNH-552, Karishma, CIM‑482, CIM‑109, NIAB-78,

46-69 Kg/ac

 

·         The quantity of Nitrogen will depend upon the variety and soil test.

·         Nitrogen should be applied 1/3 at sowing , 1/3 at 1st irrigation and 1/3 at flowering.

·         Application of Nitrogen fertilizers should be completed by 15th August

 Phosphorus:

Phosphorus

All varieties

23 Kg/  acre at sowing

·        Phosphate fertilizer need not to be applied to cotton crop if its full dose was applied to wheat crop

 

 Potash:

Potash

All varieties

25 Kg/  acre at sowing

 

·        Potash should be applied after soil test.

·        Potash fertilizer should be added at planting to soils showing less than 125 ppm available K

 Micronutrients:

·        Zinc and Boron should be applied after soil test.

·        Zinc: 7 kg ZnSO4  / acre at sowing time           ( if level is < 1ppm)

·        Boron: 5.5 kg Borax / acre (if level is <0.6ppm)

  Weed Control

  • Weeding through interculture should be preferred.
  • If interculture fails to control weeds, pre-emergence herbicides must be used at planting.

Efficient weed control requires uniform application of weedicides with flat fan or flood jet nozzle and proper incorporation.

PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY

ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVELS OF DIFFERENT INSECTS PESTS

            The ETLs worked out and recommended are as under:-

 

INSECT PESTS

ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL

Jassid

1 Adult or Nymph per leaf.

Whitefly

Adults/Nymphs or both 5/leaf.

Thrips

8-10/ leaf.

Mite

Spray on visible damage.

Aphid

Spray on visible damage on top terminals.

Spotted bollworm

3 larvae/ 25 plants

Pink bollworm

a)Before boll formation presence or absence of insect pest on the basis of Rosette flower.

b)Infestation in bolls should be determined by dissecting the susceptible bolls (14-28 days old, which can easily be pressed between index fingure and thumb, 5% damage or presence of larvae in boll.

Helicoverpa armigera

5 brown eggs or 3 larvae or collectively both 5/25 plants.

Armyworm

Localized treatment where found.

 

 STRATEGY FOR THE YEAR 2001

            A harvest to harvest IPM strategy for cotton crop for the year 2001 is proposed as under:-

 BEFORE SOWING OF COTTON

v     Plough up cotton fields residues to destroy over-wintering/diapausing pupae of American bollworm soon after picking but not later than end of January. No need of deep ploughing. Normal cultivation is sufficient to the job..

v     Remove all weed hosts that encourage the breeding of the pests through out the farm.

v     Graze goats before cutting of cotton sticks (Pink bollworm hibernating pupae control).

v     Remove/pluck/trash and left over bolls from the sticks before stacking them.

v     Cotton sticks should be stacked in small bundles/heaps in the sun.

v     During May the heap may be turned upside down to expose the lower portion to the sun.

v     Planting okra in cotton area should be discouraged and okra crop kept for seed purpose should properly be protected.

v     Methamidophos and monocrotophos should not be used on Spring crops, instead use IGRS, etc.

v     Generally recommended pesticides for sucking pests of cotton should not be used on other crops.

v     Relay cropping must not be practised in cotton.

v     Use of Trichgramma and other biological control agents should be encouraged on Spring crops.

v     Install light traps for the control/monitoring of lepidopterous insect pests.

v     Ensure complete cleanliness of ginneries/cotton factories after ginning season is over, to minimize the hiding population of pink bollworm in the left over seed in the cracks and crevices.

 DURING COTTON SEASON :

v     No planting of pre-season or very late cotton.

v     Grow 2-3 recommended cotton varieties with relatively shorter duration (early maturing) and with open canopy.

v     Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizer. It encourages insect attack. Complete fertilizer application by 15th August.

v     Optimise the use of irrigation. Cut of irrigation by 5 th October.

v     Control of sucking insect pests at early stage of the crop through seed treatment.

v     Delay first spray as far as possible for the conservation of beneficials but start spraying at ETL.

v     Use pheromone baited traps and mating disruption technique (PB-Ropes for pink bollworm control).

v     Use of pheromone traps around village near cotton heaps for pink bollworm control.

v     Pest scouting should be done twice a week.

v     Spray at right stage of the pest and at ETL.

v     Do not repeat the same chemical more than twice a season, instead rotate different insecticide groups for spray..

v     Select only recommended pesticides and use proper dose.

v     Use proper plant protection machinery/techniques –(e.g. ULV for rainy season for American bollworm) discourage the use of “jecto” for cotton plant protection.

v     Pyrethroids and their combinations should not be used during early cotton season.

v     Weeds must be properly managed.

v     Encourage the sowing of bajra as trap crop for attracting birds to predate upon insects, especially American bollworm.

 IMPORTANT POINTS:

v     No pre-season planting of cotton.

v     Graze the cotton fields for left over bolls before cutting of sticks.

v     Plough up cotton field immediately after cutting of sticks latest by 31st January.

v     Avoid use of cotton pesticides on Spring crops.

v     Delay first spray as far as possible to conserve beneficials.

v     Treat seed before planting.

v     Avoid Methamidophos and Monocrotophos in early cotton spraying.

 
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