Mango

MAGNIFICENT MANGOES OF PAKISTAN

TREMENDOUS EXPORT POTENTIAL  
Mango is a delicious fruit grown in slightly less than ninety tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. The fruit is most­ly eaten fresh as a dessert. It is also processed into preserves, juices, jams, jellies, nectars as well as crisp mango chips, which are eaten as snacks. Mango is an excellent source of vitamins A. B and C and contains  water, proteins, Sugar. fats, fibers and iron etc.

India, China, Mexico, Thailand, Philippines,Pakistan,Nigeria, Indonesia, Brazil and Egypt are, in that  order, the top ten mango producing countries in the world. Well over four-fifths of global mango production comes from the top ten. Asia, the original home of the fruit, provides about three-fourths of world mangoes, of which two-thirds come from India alone.

Table – I Global Mango Production

Quantity (million tons)

Country 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 % change in five years Share in 99
World 23.80 23.75 24.29 19.23 19.00 24.75%
India 12.00 12.00 12.00 10.00 10.00 20.00% 50.4%
China 2.10 2.10 2.10 1.00 0.98 114.2% 8.9%
Mexico 1.50 1.47 1.50 1.40 1.34 11.9% 6.00%
Thailand 1.25 1.25 1.35 0.65 0.65 92.3% 5.2%
Philippines 0.93 0.93 0.98 0.48 0.43 116.2% 3.9%
Pakistan 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.85 0.88 3.4% 3.8%
Nigeria 0.73 0.73 0.69 0.50 0.50 46.00% 3.00%
Indonesia 0.60 0.60 0.11 0.73 0.78 (-)23% 2.5%
Brazil 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.41 0.41 46.3% 2.5%
Egypt 0.23 0.22 0.23 0.18 0.18 27% 0.9%

Source:F.A.O./U.N

World production of mangoes stood at 19 million tones in 1995, which rose to 23.8, million tones in 1999,registering an increase of 24.75% over the five years. Philippines and China have achieved much over 100% increase in mango production during that period. Thailand is another country, which has also registered a significant increase. Rise in Pakistan’s annual mango production during 1995-1999 is only 3.4 %• Our share in global mango production in 1999 is 3.8%.

In 1999, about 2776 thousand hectares were under mango cultivation in the world.
India cultivates mangoes on 1300 thou­sand hectares, while mango cultivation in China,
Mexico and Indonesia is on 214 thousand hectares, 162 thousand hectares and 150 thousand hectares, respectively. Land under mango cultivation in Pakistan is 92.8 thousand hectares, and that in Philippines is 93.9 thousand hectares.

In Pakistan, while mangoes are also cultivated in Balochistan and N.W.F.P, the fruit is
mainly grown in Sindh and southern Punjab. Mirpur Khas and Multan are noted for their
huge mango gardens. Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Naushahroferoz, Khairpur (Mir’s), Rahim Yar Khan, Bhawalpur, Mu:afargarh, Sheikhupura are important mango growing areas in the country.

Mango production in Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh
and Sargodha etc is also considerable. Varieties of mangoes are various. Their number is infinite. But, only a select few have commercial significance. Some of the principal varieties of Pakistan are described here.

Sindhri: Sindhri is the best of all varieties grown in Pakistan. The colour of this variety is yellow, the rent colour of man­goes. Sindhri is large in size, beautiful in shape and superb in taste. In colour, in shape and in taste, the variety has no rival, no match. It is simply peerless. It is a very delicious mango. Had Shakespeare ever tasted the variety,
he would have sponta­neously sung:

Deliciousness the name is Sindhri
The shelf-life of the  variety is longer than most of other varieties. It has proportionately larger eating mass. Sindhri. indeed, is a perfect mango.

Chaunsa:

Among the late varieties of the country, Chaunsa i^ the choicest.
It has a unique and appealing aroma. In size, the variety is medium large.

Dasehri:

Then, we have Dasehri, ‘the small wonder. It is small in size only, but big in all other attributes of a mango. It is very sweet and tasty. Its skin is stiff, which fully protects the eatable pulp inside.

Langra:
Mangoes, when ripe, usually change their colour from green to yellow or yellowish red. But, we have a variety in Pakistan, which does not change its colour even on ripening. It is Langra, the green beamy1. It comes in market earlier then  Sindhri. Eating qualities of the variety are excellent.It is sweet and juicy. It is a medium-sized fruit.

Sonaro:
Sonaro, a variety mostly cultivated in Khirqur-Sukkur belt ,is our ‘heavy-weight champion’  in. mangoes. It weight is over one pound. Weight wise Sonaro is No.l in Pakistan. It comes in August. It is excellent for juicing.

Anwar Katole, Saroli. Fajri, Malda, Gulab Khns, Totapari. Beganpali ,Collestor  Neelam, Pndam and Sensation etc are other important varieties of the mangoes.

Among a total of 75 mango export (re-exporting )countries   in the world Mexico, Philippines and Pakistan lead the list.

Table – II Global Export of Mangoes

Quantity (000 Tons)

Country 1998 1997 1996 Share in 98
World 509.8 465.8 416.6 41 %
Mexico 209.4 187.1 165.0 10.3%
Philippines 52.5 45.0 40.2 7.8%
Pakistan 40.2 25.0 18.3 7.6%
Brazil 39.2 23.3 24.2
India 26.7 26.7 26.7 5.2%
Netherlands 17.1 24.7 21.3 3.3%
Peru 10.5 9.4 12.1 2%
Guatemala 10.2 9.5 8.5 1.9%
France 9.0 8.4 3.4 1.7%
Haiti 7.1 10.0 8.2 1.3%

Source F.A.O./U.N

As indicated in Table – II, Mexico is the single largest mango exporting country in the world and takes a lions share (41%) in international  mango market. In 1998, when total world exports were 509.8 thousands tons. this country exported 209.4 thousand tons of mangoes. Philippines and Pakistan respectively rank the second and third largest international  suppliers of  the fruit. Getting 7.6 % of world mango market, Pakistan achieved a wonderful growth of 119% rising from 18.3 thousand tons  in 1996 to 40.2 thousand tons in 1908. India registered   a zero increase in mango export during  the same period.

The Netherlands and France do not produce mangoes. But these countries among of  the first  ten mango exporters of this fruit

Table – III Global Import of Mangoes

Country 1998 1997 1996 Share in 98
World 456.8 432.9 394.6
U.S.A. 197.4 186.5 171.3 43.2
China Hong Kong (SAR) 46.5 39.1 35.4 10.18
 The Netherlands 34.6 34.0 25.2 7.5
U.A.E. 24.0 24.0 35.4 5.2
France 22.4 22.7 17.5 4.9
Malaysia 28.7 13.5 13.5 4.5
U.K. 18.0 17.8 15.7 3.95
Saudi Arabia 18.1 18.1 12.8 3.9
Germany 17.4 17.1 12.8 3.8
Singapore 10.7 10.6 12.1 2.3

Source: F.A.O./U.N.

The USA’s  imports of mangoes are the highest (43.2%) in the world. In 1998, it imported 197.4 thousand tons of the fruit. Chnia , Hong Kong, the Netherlands. UAE. France. Malaysia. the UK and Saudi Arabia, Germany and Singapore are other major importers  of mangoes.

About 85% of Pakistani mangoes are shipped to Dubai. The  rest are exported to around 25-30 countries in various pans of the world The prominent  among them include Saudi Arabia, the U.K., Bahrain and Singapore.

Recommendations:

(i)
 We must focus on Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore in the Far East and the Netherlands, France, the U.K. and German v in Europe for developing mango exports from Pakistan.

(ii) In order to chalk out a long-term action plan for achieving a rapid growth in mango production, processing and exports, a Match Making ; conference on mangoes may be held in Karachi in December, this year. All stakeholders in the fruit, including farmers exporters ,investors , packing material suppliers, airlines scientists  and  researcher  may attend. Pakistanis living abroad engaged in mango related business may also be invited. Government agencies like EPB, P1DC. ADBP. MINFAL may co-sponsor the conference. EPB may coordinate. The conference will also serve as a forum, where interested mango growers, processors  and exporters can  finalize direct  business deals for the year -2001 (.and beyond) mango crops.

(iii) Mango orchards, rather  all  fruit orchards ,of ten acres and above may be declared as industry. All facilities available to an industry in a rural area ( such as Gadoon Amazai industrial area) including the facility of duty free   import cooling plants, fruit farming and processing machinery and equipment, refrigerated vehicles for transportation of fruits may be  allowed to such orchard industries.

(iv) Marketing side of our agriculturists is very poor. They do not get appropriate returns from their fruit farms. Farmers may, therefore, be encouraged and assisted, technically and financially, to establish Growers Marketing Association (GMA) to be responsible for procuring agriculture products from  the farmers and selling it profitably on their behalf in the country and abroad. For this purpose a reasonable number of shops and godowns in fruit and vegetable markets in all major cities like Karachi, Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas. Sukkur, Bahawa!pur, Multan, Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar and Quetta may be allotted to GMA. Growera ..iarketing Association may also be assisted in operating cold storage, warehouses and export houses in Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Holland and Germany in collabo-ratk ith GMA’s counterpart organizations in these countries.

(v) Real export culture and required infrastructure is yet to be developed in Pakistan. To meet this er 4, Fruit and Vegetable Export Villages may be established near the airports of Karachi. Sukkur, Multan, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Quetta. Facilities for packing and grading, cold storage may be provided  at  these places on nominal charges.

(vi) Farmers Associations operating in the country may group themselves together to form Federation of Pakistan Farmers Association (FPFA) to voice their view effectively on national level. The Federation of Pakistan Farmers Association should make it a point to formulate suggestions / recommendations at least three month before  the national budget, to be given to policy makers enabling them (the policy makers) to prepare farmer-friendly budgets. The same may be done in the case of trade policy, as well.

(vii) There are complaints from commercial sections abroad that some exporters from Pakistan are exporting artificially ripened immature mangoes at the start of the season. This is creating a bad impression about Pakistani mangoes in intema-tional market. To ensure that only fully mature mangoes are exported, export of this fruit before the first day ot June should not be allowed. Customs authorities may check the initial consignments of each variety.

(viii) Present is the age of value addition. Mangoes should be exported in value added form. The fruit may he processed into juices, nectars and other value added products. The latest trend for packing juice and nectar is tin and transparent material. Mirpurkhas and Multan, as well as Karachi and Lahore are ideal places for manufacturing value added mango products. Pakistani as well as foreign investors may come forward and seize the opportunity.

(ix) We are allowing a subsidy in freight on export of potatoes, while other vegetables and fruits stand ignored. Let there be a uniform policy. A 25% subsidy in freight allowed in the case of potatoes may also be given on  export of all fruits and vegetables, mangoes included.

(x)     there is no dried mango concept in Pakistan ,though it has the status of an industry in quite a few countries .such as Philippines, Entrepreneurs in Pakistan may  venture into this profitable field . ready buyer may be found for this product in Europe , the USA and Japan.

Some Useful Hints:
Various studies  suggest the following useful hints for enhancement of the level of the common approval and acceptance for mangoes in the international markets:
Mango harvesting  in early morning should be avoided to reduce  latex staining  problems.

• While harvesting, a stem of 1.5 cm should be left  and be trimmed back to 2.3  mm  at packing.

 Before  pacing, the fruit should be washed and given fungicidal heat treatment. Mangoes are usually treated against anthracnose  with hot water (ISO Standard 6660-mangoes, guide to storage).

• The fruit must be cooled rapidly within  24 hours.

 Minimum weight of an individual mango meant for exports should not be less than 220 g. The most saleable weights are 300-550 g. per fruit.

 Packaging used should be strong, preferably white, attractive and clean.

• Fruit should be individually wrapped in tissue paper packed in one layer. A 2-kg packet, containing 5-7 mangoes, is preferred in the Gulf and Europe.

 The box must have holes for enough ventilation, and should  lidded.

 In order to receive a tariff preferential treatment in European countries and Japan, under their GSP Schemes, the consignments must be accompanied by Form ‘A’, duly authenticated by Export Promotion Bureau, Government of Pakistan.

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