Poultry

Feeds for poultry

Poultry feeding is one of the important aspect of poultry science. Poultry feeds are of three types

  1. Starting poultry feed: An all mash ration to be fed to chicks upto the age of 8 weeks.
  2. Growing poultry feed: A ration to be fed to growing chickens after 8 to 20 weeks or until laying commences.
  3. Laying poultry feed: A ration to be fed to laying birds after 20 weeks onwards or after laying commences.

Following are the nutrient constituents of poultry feeds

Proteins: In poultry, the products produced consists mainly of protein. On a dry weight basis the carcass of an 8 weeks old broiler is more than 65% protein and the egg contents are about 50% protein. Typical broiler rations will contain from 22 to 24% protein and in layers ration the amount varies between 16-17%.

Source: Meat scraps (lysine), fish meal (lysine, methionine), poultry by-product meal (tryptophan, lysine), blood meal, liver and glandular meal, feather meal (hydrolyzed), animal tankage, milk products, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, soybean meal, sesame meal, sunflower seed meal.

Carbohydrates: The main function of carbohydrates in the diet is to provide energy to the animal. The polysaccharides of major importance are starch, cellulose, pentosans and several other complex carbohydrates. Although cellulose and starch are composed of glucose units, chickens possess enzymes that can hydrolyze only starch. Cellulose, therefore, is completely indigestible. Cereal grains and their by-products are excellent source of starch and thus constitutes a bulk of poultry ration.

Source: Corn, sorghum grains (milo) barley, rye, oats, wheat, wheat middlings, various grain by-products.

Fats: Fats make up over 40% of the dry egg and about 17% of the dry weight of a broiler. Although fats supply concentrated form of energy (2.25 times more energy than carbohydrate and protein) their inclusion as true fats or oils in the ration is seldom practised because of high cost and the risk of rancidity which develops on prolong exposure to air, heat, sunlight, etc. Most feed ingredients (maize, barley, safflower, milo, wheat, rice, bran, etc.) contain 2-5% fat and that is enough for the inclusion of one essential fatty acid (Linoleic acid), which must be present in the young growing chicks or they will grow poorly, have an accumulation of liver fat and be more susceptible for respiratory infection. Laying hens with diets deficient in linoleic acid will lay small eggs that will not hatch well.

Source: Animal tallow (beef), lard, corn-oil, other vegetable oils.

Minerals: The body of the chicken and the egg excluding shell contain nearly 4 and 1% mineral matter respectively. The elements known to be required in the diet of poultry are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, zinc and selenium. Usually the grains and vegetable protein ingredients are relatively poor in mineral contents when compared with those of animal protein feed stuffs. The common mineral supplements in poultry feed are as follows: –

  1. Limestone
  2. Bone meal
  3. Oyster shell
  4. Sodium chloride
  5. Dicalcium phosphate
  6. Manganese sulphate
  7. Potassium iodide
  8. Superphosphate.

Source: Meat scraps, fish meal, milk products, ground limestone (calcium), ground oyster shells (calcium), dicalcium phosphate (calcium, phosphorus), defluorinated rock phosphate (phosphorus, calcium), steamed bone meal (phosphorus, calcium), salt (sodium, chlorine, iodine), manganese sulfate (manganese), manganese oxide (manganese), zinc carbonate (zinc), zinc oxide (zinc).

Vitamins:

Vitamins most commonly function as coenzymes and regulators of metabolism. The 13 vitamins required by poultry have been summarised in tabular form. Apart from natural sources, commercial vitamin mixture suitable for poultry are also available. One point to remember, of course, is that the natural vitamins are likely to have other factors associated with them. These may be other recognised nutrients or they may be unidentified factors. Diets continuously deficient in any one of the required vitamins will seriously tell initially upon the egg production and then the life of the chickens.

Source: Yeasts, fish solubles, distillers’ solubles, liver meal, alfalfa meal, milk by-products.

Feed additives: Additives are never nutrients. They either singly or in combinations are added to a basic feed, usually in small qualities for the purpose of fortifying these with certain nutrients or stimulants or medicines. Often they are called “non-nutrient” feed additives.

Following are some modern feed additives used for poultry –

Additives that promote feed intake or selection

  1. Antioxidants
    BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene) Santoquin: Ethoxyquin: BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisode);
    DPPD (Diphenyl paraphenyl diamine).
  2. Flavouring agents
    Poultry Nector
  3. Pellet binders
    Sodium Bentonite (clay), liquid or solid by-products of the wood pulp industry, molasses, guarmeal

Additives that Enhance the colour or quality of the marketed product

  1. Xanthophylls , synthetic carotinoid, canthaxanthin

Additives that facilitate digestion and absorption

  1. Grit; oyster shell, limestones, gravel and pebbles
  2. Chelates :EDTA
  3. Enzymes
    Agrozyme, Diazyme, Zymopabst, Prozyme and Avizyme.
  4. Probiotics;
    strains of lactobacillus and streptococcus.
  5. Antibiotics ; penicillin, steptomycin, tetracyclines, aureomycin

Additives that alter metabolism

  1. Hormone Progesterone , Dienestrol diacetate.

Additives that affects health status

  1. Antifungal additives,
    Aflatoxin by Asperfillus flavus, sodium propionate, sodium benzoate, quaternary ammonium compounds
  2. Anticoccidial:
    Bifuran supplement, Amprol25%, Embazin, Zonamix, Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone.
  3. Antihelmintic drugs

Recommended range of proportion of poultry feeds.

Ingredients

Proportion (% by wt of materials)

Grain and Seeds

Bajra, bajra (Pennisetum typhoides)

10-15

Barley(Hordeum vulgare)

5-10

Black-gram (Phaseolus mango)

10-15

Chinna, cheena (Panicum miliaceum)

10-15

Kulthior horse-gram (Dolichos biflorus)

10-20

Jowar,Cholam (Sorghum vulgare)

10-15

Oat (Avena sativa)

5-20

Arhar (Cassia tora)

5-10

Ragi (Eleusine coracana)

10-20

Yellow maize

15-50

Grain by-products

Arhar chuni

10-15

Gram chuni

10-15

Black-gram chuni

10-15

Maize grit

10-15

Maize-gluten meal

10-20

Rice bran and polishings

10-30

Wheat bran

10-15

Minerals, Vitamins and antibiotics

Common salt

0.3-0.5

Dicalcium phosphate (fluorine content not exceeding 0.5%)

1-2

Limestone

1-3

Oyster shells

1-3

Vitamins (mineral stabilised)

As recommended by the
manufacturer

Manganese sulphate

0.02-0.3

Antibiotic feed supplement

0.1-0.5

Oil-cakes and meals

Copra cake, coconut cake

5-10

Cottonseed oil cake (decorticated)

Up to 5% by weight

Groundnut oil cake (decorticated)

15-3

Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)meal

Up to 5% by weight

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious)cake

10-15

Mustard cake: Expeller

10-20

Deoiled

25-50

Salseed cake (Shorea robusta)

0-5

Sesamum (Sesamum indicum orientale)cake

10-20

Soyabean meal

10-20

Karanja deoiled cake (Pongamia glabra)

7-8

Tubers and roots

Tapioca flour

10-25

Greens

Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) leaf-meal

3-5

Lucerne (Medicago sativa) leaf-meal

3-5

Waste materials and industrial by-products

Brewers’grains

2-5

Dried yeast and yeast sludge

2-5

Mango-seed kernel

5-10

Molasses

5-10

Penicillin mycelium residue

5-15

Silkworm pupae (freed from membranous covering)

5-10

Bloodmeal

3-5

 

Animal products

Fish-meal

5-10

Liver residue

5-10

Meat-milk and meat-scarp

5-10

Skim milk (dried)

5-10

Blood meal

3-5

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