Wheat

Wheat Production Technology in Punjab

WHEAT PRODUCING ZONES 

A-       IRRIGATED
Cotton zone, Central/ mixed zone & Rice zone

B-       RAIN FED
Rain-fed Zone

A- IRRIGATED AREAS
I) COTTON ZONE
Total wheat area: 6.719 million acres
i) Districts
Sahiwal, Khanewal, Vehari, Lodhran, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, Layyah, D.G. khan, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnager and Rahimyar khan
ii)           Cropping pattern
Cotton-wheat, Mung-wheat, Sugarcane-wheat, Kharif fodder/maize-wheat
iii)          Commercial wheat varieties 

Name of Varieties Time of planting Remarks
Inqilab-91 Nov.10 –Dec.15 High yielding disease resistant, lodging resistant and general purpose variety suitable for rich soils under normal and late planting
Punjab.96 Nov.1 –Nov.30 High yielding variety having durable resistance against rust diseases and suitable for early to normal planting with good performance under sandy soils
M.H.97 Oct.25– Nov.30 High yielding variety with better adaptability, and good tillering capacity, suitable for early to normal planting
Pasban.90 Nov.1 – Nov.30 High yielding slow rusting variety suitable for saline areas
Bwp.97 Nov.15– Dec.15 Recommended for irrigated areas of south Punjab for late planting
Augab.2000 Nov.01- Dec.15 Recommended for early and late planting in irrigated areas of Punjab
Iqbal.2000 Nov.15-Dec.15 Recommended for late planting in irrigated areas of the Punjab.
Chenab-2000 Oct.25-Nov.30 Recommended for early and normal planting in the irrigated areas.

Note: Maximum planting should be completed by 30th November and in no case should be extended
beyond mid December.

iv) Seed treatment and seed rate. Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used
@ 50-60 Kg/ac. Seed should be treated with appropriate systemic fungicide.

iv)          Planting method

                        Rabi drill or ‘Kera’ should be practiced to ensure better yields.

  1. v)                                                      FERTILIZER APPLICATION PER ACRE  
Type of soil (KG) Bags
N P K DAP UREA POTASH
POOR 52 46 25 2.0 1.75 1.0
MEDIUM 42 34 25 1.50 1.50 1.0
FERTILE 30 23 25 1.0 1.25 1.0

Note:- All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing

in case of late planting in December (NP ratio 1.5:1 or 1:1).

Common weeds: Phalaris minor (Dumbi sitti), Avena fatua (Wild oats),

                          Chenopodium (Bathu) & Convolvulus (Lehli).

            vi)                   Weed control

          Cultural: Double bar harrow should be practiced.

          Chemical: i) Selective weedicides for broad and narrow  leaved weeds should be used.

  1. ii) Wide spectrum weedicides can be used when both types of weeds are problem.

Note:–          i) Weedicides should be applied after Ist irrigation in good moisture condition

                   when weeds are at 2-3 & wheat crop at 3-4 leaf stages.

  1. ii) Herbicides belonging to the same group or family should not be repeated in the same field,
    the following year.
iii) Irrigations: Three irrigations are necessary at the critical stages
after ‘rauni’ as given below.
  1. Ist irrigation 20-25 days after sowing.
  2. 2nd     ”                   At boot stage.
  3. 3rd     ”                   At milk stage of grain development.

II).      CENTRAL/MIXED CROP ZONE

            Total wheat area          3.639 million acres

  1. i)            Districts:

                        Jhang, Faisalabad, Okara, T.T. Singh, Sargodha, Khushab and parts of Mianwali and Bhakkar.

  1. ii)             Cropping pattern

Sugarcane – Wheat, Cotton – Wheat, Kharif fodder/maize – Wheat, Rice – Wheat, Wheat – Fallow – Wheat & Guar – Wheat

            iii)             Varieties

Inqlab-91, Pasban-90, MH-97, Punjab 96, Auqab-2000 and Iqbal 2000

            iV)             Planting time

Nov.Ist to Nov.25 for obtaining optimum yields and for late planting by Dec.15.

  1. V)             Seed treatment and seed rate

                        Seed treated with recommended fungicides be used at the                        following rate

                    Normal sowing 50 kg/ac

                    Late sowing           60 kg/ac

          Vi)             Planting method

Line sowing with Rabi drill or ‘Kera’ method should be practiced.

Vii)             Fertilizer application (Kg/ac)                               

Type of soil (KG) Bags
N P K DAP UREA POTASH
POOR 52 46 25 2.0 1.75 1.0
MEDIUM 42 34 25 1.50 1.50 1.0
FERTILE 30 23 25 1.0 1.25 1.0

Note:- All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing in case of late planting in December
(NP ratio 1.5:1 or 1:1).

Viii)     Weed control

                        Cultural         ‘Daab’ and double bar harrow.

                    Chemical       Same as mentioned earlier  for Cotton zone.

ix)       Irrigations

                        Four to five at critical stages of wheat plant growth.

STAGE NO OF DAYS AFTER SOWING
Crown root initiation 20-25
Jointing stage 50-58
Boot stage 90-105
Pollination stage 110-120
Dough stage 125-135

III).     RICE ZONE

            Total wheat area          3.132 million acres

  1. i)        Districts

Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Lahore and Kasur

  1. ii)       Cropping pattern

Rice – wheat (Major), Potato – Wheat,      Sugarcane – wheat, Kharif Fodder/Maize – Wheat, Mash –
Wheat, Sunflower – Kharif fodder – Wheat

iii)      Varieties

Inqilab-91, Pasban-90, Punjab 96, Auqab 2000,Iqbal 2000 and Durum 97 and Chenab 2000.

  1. iv)      Planting time

November 10 to 25 for optimum yields; late planting should be completed by December 15.

  1. v)        Seed treatment and seed rate

Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used @ 50-60 Kg/ac. Seed
should be treated with recommended systemic fungicides.

  1. vi)      Planting method

Planting with automatic Rabi drill or zero tillage drill is recommended.

vii)     Fertilizer application

Depending upon the type of soil and fertility level as given in case of cotton zone.

viii)     Weed control

As mentioned in case of cotton zone.

  1. ix)       Irrigations

Three irrigations at the following crop stages are enough depending upon rainfall.

1st irrigation 35-45 days after Sowing.

2nd irrigation          at boot stage.

3rd irrigation          at dough stage of grain formation.

Note:  Rainwater should not be allowed to stand in wheat field but be drained out to

low lying areas.

B- RAINFED ZONE

Total wheat area          1.770 million acres

  1. i)         Districts

Rawalpindi, Attock, Jehlum, Chakwal, Narowal and Parts of Sialkot, Gujrat,Layyah,
D.G.Khan, Muzaffargarh, Bhakkar, Mianwali and Khushab.

  1. ii)             Cropping Pattern

Wheat – Fallow – Wheat,     Wheat – Groundnut – Wheat, Wheat – Kharif fodder – Wheat

iii)               Commercial varieties  

VARIETIES TIME OF PLANTING REMARKS
Chakwal-86 Oct.20 – Nov.15 For all Barani areas
Rawal-87 Oct.20 – Nov.15 For all Barani areas
Kohistan-97 Oct.20 – Nov.15 For all Barani areas
Chakwal-97 Oct.20 – Nov.15 For all Barani areas
Inqilab-91 NOV.01 – DEC.10 For high rainfall & partially irrigated barani areas
  1.  iv)             Seed treatment and seed rate

Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used

@ 40-50 Kg/ac. Seed should be treated with recommended systemic fungicide.

Note:  In case of low moisture soils, seed should be soaked in water for 8-10 hours before sowing.

  1. v)             Planting methods

Planting with Rabi drill, Pore or Kera should be practiced.

  1. vi) Fertilizer application (Kg/Ac)
ANNUAL RAINFALL (KG) Bags
N P K DAP UREA POTASH
LOW RAINFALL 350 mm 23 23 25 1.0 0.75 1.0
MEDIUM RAINFALL 350-500 mm 34 23 25 1.0 1.25 1.0
HIGH RAINFALL ABOVE 500mm 46 34 25 1.5 1.50 1.0

Note: All the fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing

vii) Weeds:          

Chenopodium(Bathu), Medicago spp. (Maina) Lathyrus spp. (Matri), Asphodelus tenuifolius
(Piazi), Carthamus oxycantha (Pohli)
 etc. All weeds be removed through mechanical
means/manual labour and can be used as fodder for live-stock. The Pre-emergence
weedicides can be used in barani area in  good moisture condition.

KEY POINTS FOR OBTAINING GOOD WHEAT CROP.

  1. Proper seed bed preparation for crop growth and development. Moisture preservation through
    deep ploughing followed by Monsoon rains in Barani areas.
  2. Use of pure and healthy seed of recommended varieties with seed rate of 50 kg/acre for normal
    planting and 60 kg/acre for late planting.
  3. Seed treatment with proper fungicides before planting increases yield by 5-6%.
  4. Planting must be completed by the end of November and for late planting upto 15th of December.
  5. In Barani areas planting should be done with pore or automatic Rabi drill whereas for irrigated areas
    automatic Rabi drill should be preferred.
  6. Use of phosphatic fertilizers along with nitrogen is very essential both under irrigated and rain fed
    conditions. The N:P ratio of 1:1 or 1.5:1 be maintained.
  7. Application of Potash to the wheat crop on tubewell irrigated soils or sandy type soils or crop sown
    after rice, sugarcane etc is essential.
  8. Late planting should be completed by 15 December and all fertilizers be applied at planting time.
  9. Irrigations to wheat at critical stages of crop growth be ensured viz; 12-18 days after germination,
    at booting, milk and dough stages. In rice zone the first irrigation should be applied 30-40 days after
    germination.
  10. Weed eradication through Daab, double bar harrow or spray of weedicides is very important.
    It should be practiced on vast areas in collaboration with extension services & private herbicide companies.
  11. In sick soils and in Barani areas planting of barley and Wadanak wheat should be preferred. In partially
    affected saline soils wheat variety Pasban-90 can be successfully grown.
  12. Extension service and electronic media should be consulted for improved wheat production.
  13. Supply of inputs must be ensured before planting season at reasonable prices and without adulteration.
  14. Wheat varieties, Pasban 90, MH 97 and Uqab 2000 should not be sown in northern parts of the
    Punjab due to their moderately susceptible reaction against stripe rust.

 

WHEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTE FAISALABAD

Dr. Muhammad Aqil Khan

Director

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