Poultry

Poultry Industry & Poultry Products –Basic for Good Nutrition

Science and technology have made for great expansion of the poultry industry in recent years. Current world average expansion of egg production is 3 to 4 % annually. Egg and broiler production satisfies a large portion of the community with enriched sources of vital elements and has also been recognized as one of the best ways of supplying good quality animal protein for consumption thereby fulfilling their nutritional requirements.

Broiler Chick Production (Million nos.)

1985

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

100

371

396

525

585

625

  • Commercial broilers are grown to different weights in each production area, depending on market requirements.
  • The national average liveweight per broiler is 1.450 Kg.
  • Marketing age 35 to 45 days, depending on feed quality
  • Average FCR: 2:1

 Broiler Chicken Meat Production (‘000 Tonnes)

1985

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

52.5

270

350

425

485

520

Per Capita Annual Broiler Chicken Consumption (gms / person)

1985

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

91

317

376

450

500

533

Poultry Products –Basic for Good Nutrition:

Most nutrition programs can be improved by the inclusion of eggs and / or poultry meat. Poultry products are of the highest nutritional quality and are marketed at prices that even the poor can afford.

Eggs:- Of all the foods available to people, the egg most nearly approaches a perfect balance of all the nutrients.

Egg contains an abundance of proteins, vitamins and minerals. The protein fraction of eggs is highly digestible and of high quality, having a biological value of 94 on a scale of 100.

Egg proteins are complete proteins, that is, they contain all the essential amino acids required to maintain life and promote growth and health.

Additionally, eggs are a rich source of iron, phosphorus, trace minerals, vitamins A, E, and K; and all the B vitamins, including vif. B12.

Eggs are second only to Fish-liver oils as a natural source of vitamin D. Eggs are moderate from the standpoint of calorie content, a medium size egg containing about 77 calories.

Table-1 illustrates the nutritive value of eggs:

Protein

12.9gm

Iron

2.3mg

Calcium

54 mg /100 gm

po4

205 mg / 100 gm

Na

122mg / 100 gm

K

129 mg / 100 gm

Vit. A – 1180 IU.
Vit. B1 – 0.09 mg
Vit. B6-0.28mg
Energy-163 kcal/100gm.
Fat-11.5 gm/ 100gm
Cholesterol-550 mg

Poultry-Meat

Poultry meat is supplied chiefly by chickens and turkeys, although duck’s, geese, guinea fowl, quail etc. And other fowl contributes therefore poultry meat is economical and quick and easy to prepare and serve. Also it has a number of desirable nutritional properties.

Nutritionally people eat poultry meat for its high content of high quality protein and its low fat content.

Turkey and chicken meat is slightly higher in protein and slightly lower in fat than beef and other red meats. Additionally protein is rich source of al the essential amino acids.

Approximate composition (per 100 gm edible protein)

species Water Protein Lipid CHO Mine-
rals
  Chole-
sterol
Broiler 74.6 12.1 11.1 1.2 1.0 158 75mg
Turkey 72.5 13.7 11,.9 1.1 0.8 171  
Duck 70.8 12.8 13.8 1.4 1.2 185  
Quail 74.3 13.1 11.1 1.4 1.1 158  

Poultry products in Industry:

  1. Science and technology have teamed up to make many uses of poultry and eggs, and their by products. Among processed products from eggs include dry whole egg powder, used in numerous baked and processed foods to enhance flavor and texture. Among, chicken processed products are chicken shavani kabab, chicken samosa, nuggets, Fingers, chicken sausages, chicken lollypop, tandur etc.

Industrial uses are inedible eggs used in the preparation of animal feed and fertilizers, egg whites used in the making of pharmaceuticals paints, varnishes, adhesives, printers ink bookbinding, wine clarification, leather tanning and textile dyeing.

Egg yolks used in the making of cake mixes, soap, paints, shampoos, leather finishing and bookbinding.

Egg shells used in making mineral mixes and in fertilizers, feathers used in animal feed, fertilizers, millinery goods, pillows, mattresses, dusters and insulation materials , poultry offal used in animal and in mink feeds and endocrine glands used in making biological products. Also, it is note worthy that diluents containing egg yolk are widely used in A.I

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