Dr Muhammad Rasheed
Incharge PDS Team (B)
Livestock in Pakistan inevitably plays a pivotal role in socio-economic life of the rural community.The role of Livestock in rural economy can be realized from the fact that 30-35 millions rural population is engaged in Livestock raising having holding of 2-3 cattle buffaloes and 5-6 sheep & goat per family deriving 30-40 % of their income from it.
Livestock products in the shape of milk, meat, butter and other milk by products are the major sources of animal protein & fat for human consumption/better health. Protein of animal origin is indispensable for the proper growth and built up especially in the growing human body. The recommended human consumption of animal protein is 36 grams per capita per day but we hardly consume/receive 18.0 grams per day, which is much lower than the actual requirement. This situation needs to be reviewed not only for proper growth of healthy generation but also to improve the socio-economic structure of rural community, which are 75% of total population of the Pakistan. The livestock sector contributed 9% to GDP and 36% to the Agriculture sector during the year 2001-2002.
EXPORT OF LIVESTOCK:
Pakistan is earning a reasonable amount of foreign exchange with the export of livestock and livestock bye products e.g. Beef, Mutton, Skins, Hides, Finished Leather, Leather goods, raw wool, Carpets, and foot wears etc. According to an estimate, a sum of Rs. 39.5 Billions was earned through export of livestock by-products during the year 2001-2002. Obviously protection of livestock wealth against diseases and provision of proper treatment amounts to monitory support of the livestock owners, which ultimately contributes to economy of the people and at large towards the NATIONAL ECONOMY.
Livestock Population of Pakistan:
Transboundry Animal Diseases:
Pakistan is facing challenges to establish its economy on sounds grounds by introducing new technologies in every field. In livestock sector the main threat is to eradicate the Transboundry Animal Diseases to compete for the export of livestock and livestock products. Under the Transboundry Animal Diseases Rinderpest disease, Foot and Mouth disease and Pest des petites Ruminants (PPR) are the main diseases of global concern.
Rinderpest is an infectious and contagious disease which is caused by a morbillivirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a member of a small group of viruses, which includes human measles, canine distemper and PPR.
The diseases spread through the virus transmission by the respiratory route through infected droplets. It requires close contact such as in the milk sheds, village watering place or common pond, common grazing place or area, in the cattle markets and on the back of transporting vehicle. The contact must involve an infected animal (excreting phase of the disease) and an uninfected animal.
Among the domestic animals Cattle, domestic buffalo, yaks, Sheep and Goat, camels and pigs are Rinderpest susceptible and may be affected to a greater or lesser degree. In addition a number of wildlife species including bull, various species of Deer and Gazelle may also be affected by Rinderpest Disease.
The Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) is a time-bound programme to eliminate Rinderpest from the world by the year 2010. Strategies have been devised and programmes implemented to reduce the clinical incidence of Rinderpest to zero. limination of disease and infection will be confirmed by statistically valid active disease surveillance programmes.
The Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme has shown that:
1. National Rinderpest campaigns have been successful
2. Rinderpest is now confined to defined foci in Eastern Africa, South and West Asia
3. An outbreak of Rinderpest outside the known endemic foci should be treating as Emergency
4. Mass vaccination of national/regional herds is no longer necessary
5. GREP strategy everywhere should emphasize on Early Warning, Early Reaction, Contingency Planning and National Commitment to the OIE pathway.
Rinderpest eradication by 2010:
Within the next decade there is a very real prospect that Rinderpest will become, like smallpox in humans, a disease of the past. Today, as we enter a new millennium, progress made by the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), has limited the disease to a small number of sites in eastern Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. But the specter of cattle plague, with its devastating epidemics of the past, continues to be a threat as long as these few small areas harbor Rinderpest. So, intensified action for these remaining pockets of Rinderpest infection is being promoted and co-coordinated by FAO under GREP.
What is The OIE Pathway?
In order to maintain this status, the country must continue to operate an efficient disease reporting system, which would detect Rinderpest if it occurred.
Status of some Asian countries regarding Rinderpest Disease
Status of Pakistan:
Pakistan is on the way to get the Rinderpest Disease free status from OIE in near future. The Global Rinderpest Eradication Program was started in 1998 with the objective to eradicate the disease since 2010. The activities in this regard are in progress with the coordination of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nation (UN). Sero Surveillance and Disease Surveillance for the Transboundry Animal Diseases in Pakistan are underway by the trained veterinary staff with efficient disease reporting system. In year 2000 the vaccination against Rinderpest disease was stopped and in January, 2003 Pakistan declared it self Rinderpest Disease Free country provisionally. Currently Pakistan is provisionally Rinderpest Disease Free country since 2003 and with the active disease, sero surveillance program with favorable surveillance results after 3 more years, Pakistan will be declared Rinderpest Disease Free Country, Insha Allah.
Recognizing Rinderpest (A field manual for the Pakistan Rinderpest Eradication Program)
FAO website www.fao.org
Dr Muhammad Rasheed PDS expert L&DD Punjab Pakistan Email: email@example.com