Poultry

Rinderpest Disease free Pakistan is a target, near to be achieved by the Livestock Department

Dr Muhammad Rasheed
Incharge PDS Team (B)
L&DD Punjab

INTRODUCTION:

Livestock in Pakistan inevitably plays a pivotal role in socio-economic life of the rural community.The role of Livestock in rural economy can be realized from the fact that 30-35 millions rural population is engaged in Livestock raising having holding of 2-3 cattle buffaloes and 5-6 sheep & goat per family deriving 30-40 % of their income from it.

Livestock products in the shape of milk, meat, butter and other milk by products are the major sources of animal protein & fat for human consumption/better health. Protein of animal origin is indispensable for the proper growth and built up especially in the growing human body. The recommended human consumption of animal protein is 36 grams per capita per day but we hardly consume/receive 18.0 grams per day, which is much lower than the actual requirement. This situation needs to be reviewed not only for proper growth of healthy generation but also to improve the socio-economic structure of rural community, which are 75% of total population of the Pakistan. The livestock sector contributed 9% to GDP and 36% to the Agriculture sector during the year 2001-2002.
EXPORT OF LIVESTOCK:

Pakistan is earning a reasonable amount of foreign exchange with the export of livestock and livestock bye products e.g. Beef, Mutton, Skins, Hides, Finished Leather, Leather goods, raw wool, Carpets, and foot wears etc. According to an estimate, a sum of Rs. 39.5 Billions was earned through export of livestock by-products during the year 2001-2002. Obviously protection of livestock wealth against diseases and provision of proper treatment amounts to monitory support of the livestock owners, which ultimately contributes to economy of the people and at large towards the NATIONAL ECONOMY.

Livestock Population of Pakistan:

S/No Species Population
1. Buffalo 24030000
2. Cattle 22857000
3. Sheep 24398000
4. Goat 50917000
5. Camel 758000
6. Asses 3977000
7. Horses 318000
8. Mules 202000

Transboundry Animal Diseases:
Pakistan is facing challenges to establish its economy on sounds grounds by introducing new technologies in every field. In livestock sector the main threat is to eradicate the Transboundry Animal Diseases to compete for the export of livestock and livestock products. Under the Transboundry Animal Diseases Rinderpest disease, Foot and Mouth disease and Pest des petites Ruminants (PPR) are the main diseases of global concern.

Rinderpest Disease:

Rinderpest is an infectious and contagious disease which is caused by a morbillivirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a member of a small group of viruses, which includes human measles, canine distemper and PPR.

Disease Transmission: 
The diseases spread through the virus transmission by the respiratory route through infected droplets. It requires close contact such as in the milk sheds, village watering place or common pond, common grazing place or area, in the cattle markets and on the back of transporting vehicle. The contact must involve an infected animal (excreting phase of the disease) and an uninfected animal.

Susceptible Animals:

Among the domestic animals Cattle, domestic buffalo, yaks, Sheep and Goat, camels and pigs are Rinderpest susceptible and may be affected to a greater or lesser degree. In addition a number of wildlife species including bull, various species of Deer and Gazelle may also be affected by Rinderpest Disease.

The Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) is a time-bound programme to eliminate Rinderpest from the world by the year 2010. Strategies have been devised and    programmes implemented to reduce the clinical incidence of Rinderpest to zero. limination of disease and infection will be confirmed by statistically valid active disease surveillance programmes.

The Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme has shown that: 

1. National Rinderpest campaigns have been successful

2. Rinderpest is now confined to defined foci in Eastern Africa, South and West Asia

3. An outbreak of Rinderpest outside the known endemic foci should be treating as  Emergency

4. Mass vaccination of national/regional herds is no longer necessary

5. GREP strategy everywhere should emphasize on Early Warning, Early Reaction, Contingency Planning and National Commitment to the OIE pathway.

Rinderpest eradication by 2010:

Within the next decade there is a very real prospect that   Rinderpest will become, like smallpox in humans, a disease of the past. Today, as we enter a new millennium, progress made by the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), has limited the disease to a small number of sites in eastern Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. But the specter of cattle plague, with its devastating epidemics of the past, continues to be a threat as long as these few small areas harbor Rinderpest. So,   intensified action for these remaining pockets of Rinderpest infection is being promoted and co-coordinated by FAO under GREP.

Background: 
The control of Rinderpest to the point we are at today has been a remarkable triumph for veterinary science and national commitment but it has not been achieved without setbacks. As recently as the 1980s, Rinderpest raged across Africa, and this   occurred at a time when the disease was thought to have been beaten after a very successful international vaccination   campaign through the 1960s and 1970s. But with hindsight, the campaign stopped too soon and, from small remaining pockets of infection, the disease escaped. Countries were not prepared, the cattle vulnerable and the cattle plague spread rapidly, just as it had nearly a century before, when the majority of domestic cattle and susceptible wildlife were killed in a broad swathe across sub-Saharan Africa. A similar pattern of Rinderpest   epidemics was also experienced in Asia in the 1980s when the     disease spread back from South Asia to borders of Europe. The lesson of these events is that near eradication is not good enough.

What is The OIE Pathway? 
The current goal of Rinderpest control is to achieve freedom of countries and later of entire world regions from Rinderpest with the ultimate aim of achieving global eradication. It is therefore necessary to institute a system for verifying the steps towards these short and long term aims, and to assist countries, which wish to trade in livestock and livestock products, but face difficulties due to the presence or past occurrence of Rinderpest. This system, elaborated during the expert consultation held in Paris (August 1989) on Rinderpest Surveillance Systems (described in the document “Recommended Standards for epidemiological surveillance systems for Rinderpest”), has since become informally but widely known as the OIE PATHWAY. These standards were adopted by the 66th general session of    the OIE  (Office International des Epizooties) and now form part of the International Animal Health Code,  section 4.5.1.1, page   379 (OIE, 1998).

         Steps to be taken to declare a country to be free from          

         Rinderpest:

        A three-stage process of achieving and proving freedom from

Rinderpest is envisaged. Once a country is satisfied that it is free

from Rinderpest and that the disease is unlikely to be re-

introduced, the country can declare itself provisionally free from

Rinderpest provided it is satisfied it meets the criteria listed

below.
Subsequent steps are then subject to international verification

under the auspices of the OIE. At least three years after a

country has declared itself provisionally free from Rinderpest, a

country which meets the criteria stated below may be declared

by the OIE to be free from Rinderpest disease. At least one year

later, a country which meets more stringent criteria with regard

to Rinderpest may be declared free from Rinderpest infection.
The specific criteria proposed for each stage of this process are

as follows:

  Provisional freedom from Rinderpest:
       For a country to declare itself (or a zone within the country)

provisionally free from Rinderpest, it must fulfill certain

conditions, which are:

  • no clinical disease should have been detected for at least two years;
  • there is an effective veterinary service which is able to monitor the animal health situation in the country;
  • the service investigates all clinical evidence suggestive of Rinderpest;
  • there is an effective reporting system, both from the field to the central veterinary authority, and by that body to the OIE;
  • there is a reliable system for preventing the introduction of infection which is carried out by proper border control, quarantines, etc.;
  • All vaccinations against Rinderpest will cease by the date of the declaration. The OIE and neighboring countries must be notified of this decision (in writing), giving the date from which vaccination ceased.
   

 

Freedom from Rinderpest disease:

     A country or a zone which has not vaccinated against Rinderpest

for at least five years and has throughout that period had no

evidence of Rinderpest may be declared free from Rinderpest

disease by the OIE based on conclusions of the FMD and Other

Epizootics Commission, provided that the country has had

throughout that period and maintains permanently an adequate

disease reporting system.

  Or
     A country which has declared itself, or a zone within the country, to

be provisionally free from Rinderpest may be declared by the OIE

free from Rinderpest disease provided that the following criteria are

met:

  • no clinical Rinderpest has been detected for at least five years;
  • no Rinderpest vaccines have been used for at least three years in any susceptible species, and no heterogonous vaccines against Rinderpest have been used for at least three years in cattle, buffaloes or yaks;
  • the country operates both clinical surveillance and disease reporting systems for Rinderpest, adequate to detect clinical disease if it were present;
  • all clinical evidence suggestive of Rinderpest is investigated by field and laboratory methods (including serological assessment) to refute a possible diagnosis of Rinderpest;
  • There are effective measures in force to prevent the re-introduction of the disease.
     On meeting these criteria, a country may apply to the OIE to be

declared free from Rinderpest disease. To maintain this status, a

country must continue to meet these requirements until it is

declared free from Rinderpest infection, and must annually report

a summary of developments to the OIE.

In order to maintain this status, the country must continue to operate an efficient disease reporting system, which would detect Rinderpest if it occurred. 

Status of some  Asian countries regarding Rinderpest Disease

India
No of cattle 209,489,136 Source: FAO Database (1998)
Last outbreak reported 09/1995 OIE information bulletin Vol. 11 No 17  30/04/1998
Virus lineage Asian lineage /
Vaccinating (1999) / /
Last vaccination 1/03/1998 (Zone C) OIE information bulletin Vol.11 No 17  30/04/1998
OIE declaration Yes Source: OIE information bulletin 8[42], 133-134 of 24/11/1995 ; 9[18], 55-56 of 17/05/1996 and OIE information bulletin Vol. 11 No 17  30/04/1998

 

 

Bhutan
No of cattle 435,000 Source: FAO Database (1998)
Last outbreak reported 1968 Source: OIE information bulletin Vol. 5 No 14 10/04/1992
Virus lineage Asian Lineage /
Vaccinating (1999) No /
Last vaccination 1986 Source: OIE information bulletin Vol. 5 No 14 10/04/1992
OIE declaration Yes Source: OIE information bulletin Vol. 5 No 14 10/04/1992

 

 

Jordan
No of cattle 65,000 Source: FAO Database (1998)
Last outbreak reported 1971 Source: OIE information bulletin Vol.11 No 49 11/12/1998
Virus lineage Asian lineage /
Vaccinating (1999) No /
Last vaccination 1997 Source: OIE information bulletin Vol.11 No 49 11/12/1998
OIE declaration Yes Source: OIE information bulletin Vol.11 No 49 11/12/1998

 

 

Nepal
No of cattle 7,024,780 Source: FAO Database (1998)
Last outbreak reported 1990 Fax  October 7, 1996 from Department of Livestock Services
Virus lineage Asian Lineage /
Vaccinating (1999) No /
Last vaccination 15/04/1995 Fax  October 7, 1996 from Department of Livestock Services
OIE declaration Yes (1996) Fax  October 7, 1996 from Department of Livestock Services

 

 

Sri Lanka
No of cattle 1,599,000 Source: FAO Database (1999)
Last outbreak reported 11/1992. OIE information bulletin Vol. 12 No. 44 19/11/1999
Virus lineage Asian lineage /
Last vaccination 3/1993 OIE information bulletin Vol. 12 No. 44 19/11/1999
OIE declaration Yes Source: OIE information bulletin Vol. 12 No. 44 19/11/1999

 

 

Turkey
No of cattle 11,185,000 Source: FAO Database (1998)
Last outbreak reported 01/1996 Source: OIE information bulletin Vol.12 No 912/03/1999
Virus lineage / /
Vaccinating (1999) No /
Last vaccination 01/10/1999 /
OIE declaration Yes Source: OIE information bulletin Vol.12 No 912/03/1999

 

 

Status of Pakistan:

Pakistan is on the way to get the Rinderpest Disease free status from OIE in near future. The Global Rinderpest Eradication Program was started in 1998 with the objective to eradicate the disease since 2010. The activities in this regard are in progress with the coordination of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nation (UN). Sero Surveillance and Disease Surveillance for the Transboundry Animal Diseases in Pakistan are underway by the trained veterinary staff with efficient disease reporting system. In year 2000 the vaccination against Rinderpest disease was stopped and in January, 2003 Pakistan declared it self Rinderpest Disease Free country provisionally. Currently Pakistan is provisionally Rinderpest Disease Free country since 2003 and with the active disease, sero surveillance program with favorable surveillance results after 3 more years, Pakistan will be declared Rinderpest Disease Free Country, Insha Allah.

Source:
Recognizing Rinderpest (A field manual for the Pakistan Rinderpest Eradication Program)
FAO website www.fao.org
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Dr Muhammad Rasheed PDS expert L&DD Punjab Pakistan Email: vetdr@swl.paknet.com.pk

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