National Tea Research Institute
Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) is used as common beverage in almost
all over the world. Pakistan has a long tradition in tea
drinking which has become a favourite source of entertainment in
the society. The per capita consumption is one kilogram.
Pakistan imports all its tea requirements from abroad and, thus,
the total annual import of tea was 2,60,000 m. tons in 2000
which costed about Rs. 12.0 billion to the national exchequer.
Presently, Pakistan is the second largest importer of tea after
United Kingdom. Demand for tea is growing day by day and in the
wake of high growth rate of population (3.1% annually), Pakistan
is likely to become the world's largest importer of tea by the
year 2010 AD.
HISTORY OF TEA PLANT
Tea originated in China and its regular drinking
began there in the 6th Century AD. It spread to Japan in 1000 AD
and by the middle of 17th Century, tea has invaded Europe. In
the mid 18th Century, the British started tea cultivation for
the first time in their colony of India (un-divided) but it was
Mr. Robert Fortune, an English Botanist who, after studying tea
cultivation for 4 years in China, brought 20,000 plants in 1853
to establish tea gardens in India.
Tea is a crop of wide adaptability and grows in
a varying range of climates and soils in various parts of the
world. Commercial tea plantation is found as far north as
Georgia (42° N) and as far south as Argentina (27° S) at
altitudes ranging from sea level in Japan to more than 2000m in
Kenya. However the following 3 factors/requirements of tea
plantation must be ensured before any decision of its commercial
plantation is made:
i) Climate: Annual rainfall above 1000mm
Air temperature; 12° - 30° C
ii) Soil: pH value ranging from 4.5 to 6.5
iii) Labour: Cheap and adequate
Tea plants takes 3 to 4 years before it comes
into production. Once established, it remains productive for
well over 80 to 100 years. In addition to this, the crop has
several other important attractions as compared to other
I) It is highly remunerative crop and no
major cash crop in the world can compete it in net-return per
ii) Being a highly labour intensive, it
generates a lot of employment opportunities for rural folk.
iii) Covering the ground vegetatively, it
provides protection against soil erosion
iv) It brings culturable waste land under
v) After processing, it provides the world's
cheapest form of beverage.
vi) Being a non-palatable crop to
animals, it requires minimum care and protection against grazing
HISTORY OF TEA CULTIVATION IN
Tea cultivation started for the first time in
the then West Pakistan (present Pakistan) in 1958 at village
Baffa (District Mansehra) under the auspices of Pakistan Tea
Board. These efforts could not prove fruitful for want of proper
Govt. attention. This was most probably due to self-sufficiency
in tea production in the then East Pakistan (present Bangladesh)
and possibly due to certain political reasons. The second
attempt was made in 1964 and a pilot project for irrigated tea
plantation was initiated by the West Pakistan Agricultural
Development Corporation at Misriot Dam near Rawalpindi, but
again the efforts failed to make the desired impact on promotion
of tea cultivation. The main cause of failure this time was the
un-favourable soil and climatic condition for tea cultivation at
the site (high soil pH with in adequate rainfall).
Soon after the separation of East Pakistan in
1971, a cell of special crops was created in the Ministry of
Food and Agriculture Government of Pakistan and a project
entitled "Research and Introduction of Tea in Pakistan" was
re-initiated in 1973-74.Later on, the project was handed over to
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Islamabad. In
order to carryout
Tea Garden At NTRI, Shinkiari
studies on tea, about V/i acres of land was planted under
tea in 1976-77 at village Baffa (District Mansehra).
Subsequently, in 1982, a four member team of Chinese tea experts
was invited under the technical co-operation programme, who
surveyed the prospective tea growing areas of northern Pakistan
in order to study the feasibility of tea cultivation in the
country. Based on their Feasibility Report, a Collaborative Tea
Research Programme was developed under which a scientist from
PARC was sent to China in 1983 to study tea cultivation and its
processing there. Subsequently, having observed the satisfactory
growth of tea plants at Daively (District Mansehra), a contract
on technical assistance for tea cultivation in Pakistan was
signed between Pakistan and China for a period of 3 years
commencing from April, 1985.The National Tea Research Station
was established in 1986 at Shinkiari, District Mansehra. The
Chinese experts visited the prospective tea growing areas again
in 1988 and submitted a comprehensive report on the economic
feasibility of tea cultivation in Pakistan.
NATIONAL TEA RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NTRI).
Station was established in 1986 on 50 acres land at Shinkiari,
District Mansehra aimed at undertaking systematic research for
evolving tea production package and promoting tea.plantation in
the prospective area. A tea garden on 30 acres land had been
established with a sound infrastructure on 12 acres land for tea
nursery.An adequately equipped soil laboratory and an orthodox
miniature tea processing unit had been installed. At present a
team of 7 trained Scientists and 2 Engineers are undertaking
research on various aspects of tea cultivation and processing.
Single Node Cuttings Vs Multi Node Cuttings
introduce/screen suitable tea varieties and establish model tea
ii) To assess yield
potential and quality of made tea.
iii) To identify the extent of the area
suitable for tea plantation.
iv) To evolve production package for tea
v) To process both green and black tea.
vi) To study the processing of tea.
i) Screened 5 Chinese tea varieties suitable for
tea plantation in the area and established tea gardens at
Shinkairi, Daively and on farmer's field at different locations
in districts Mansehra, Battagram and Swat.
ii) Identified 1,50,000 acres (60,000 ha) of
land suitable for tea plantation in Hazara and Swat, 85% of
which lies in district Mansehra (Map-l)
iii) Obtained a maximum yield of 9 tons of fresh
leave (2 tons made tea) per hectare from tea bushes of 7 years
iv) Evaluated tea quality, which ranked 2nd best
in grade at the International Tea Market, London in 1989.
v) Introduction of private companies and Private
tea traders i.e. "Tapal" to hire the lands of farmers on lease
basis and ultimately involving in tea plantation.
vi) Developed tea production package and
published in Urdu Brochure for tea growers entitled "Chaey ki
vii) Construction of building for the
installation and commissioning of tea processing plant.
Evaluation of the production package on the farmer's field under
of tea cultivation through field demonstration and Audio
iii) Training of
rural population on leaf plucking and green tea processing as
qualitative assessment and marketing of black tea.
Reluctance of farmers for tea plantation due to long gestation
period (5 years) compare to other cash crops.
ii) Lack of adequate
resources (manpower, transport and funds).
The successful plantation of tea has been
demonstrated, its yield potential and quality have been assessed
to be economically viable, the extent of the area has been
identified and finally, the production package for tea growers
has been evolved. Now it is the time for practical steps to
undertake large scale plantation in prospective tea belt. This
task of crucial economic importance could be carried out through
the establishment of a statutory body .
THE PAKISTAN TEA AUTHORITY (PTA) or PAKISTAN TEA BOARD (PTA).
SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT TEA
sinensis) is a plant which:
i) Has vast
adaptability to grow in ecological systems ranging from 42°N
latitude (Georgia) to 30°S latitude (Australia)and on altitudes
ranging from sea level (Japan) to more than 2000 meters (Kenya).
ii) Is found an ever
green bush as well as ever green tree (10 to 20 meter tall).
iii) Can be
propagated by seed as well as vegetatively through cuttings.
iv) Flowers twice a
year, once in March and then in September/October.
v) Is self sterile
and requires cross-pollination for viable seeds. Is not
palatable to any kind of animal.
vi) Gives both green
tea (non-fermented form) as well as black tea (fermented form)
from the same tea plant.
vii) Has an economic
productive life of about 100 years.
1. Dr. Abdul Rauf
2. Mr. Farrukh Siyar Hamid (Senior Scientific Officer, Soil)
3. Mr. Naseer Ahmad (Senior Scientific Officer, Entomology)
4. Mr. Abdul Waheed (Scientific Officer. Horticulture)
5. Mr. Zulfiqar ALI (Asstt. Engineer, Mechanical)
6. Mr. Noor Alam Khan (Scientific Officer, Horticulture)
7. Mr. Shamsul Islam (Scientific Officer, Soil Science)
8. Mr. Asad kamal (Asstt. Engineer, Mechanical)
9. Mr. Sajjad Hussain (Agri. Economist)
PAKISTAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
P.O. BOX NO. 1031.