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Advisory Point

AU can suggest remedies for poverty reduction
The University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, can provide an intellectual platform to identify the problems and suggest viable remedies for poverty alleviation and sustainable development in developing Asian countries.

Livestock - need for modern technology
Mohammad Qaseem

Development of livestock at the farm level means more meat, eggs at the dining tables, necessary for nourishment of the nation consequently a stronger Pakistan.

Viable Solution for Canine Parvovirus Disease
Dr. Masood Rabbani (PhD)

flu is a disease caused by type A influenza virus. It is a disease of many species of poultry affecting the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. Influenza viruses are responsible for major disease problems in birds, as well as humans and lower mammals.

Vet-Varsity Scientists Discovered a solution for Bird FLU
Dr. M. M. Mukhtar
Dr. Masood Rabbani
Dr. Khushi Muhammad

Bird flu is a disease caused by type A influenza virus. It is a disease of many species of poultry affecting the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. Influenza viruses are responsible for major disease problems in birds, as well as humans and lower mammals.

Sesame seed exports require right image-building

The exact origin of sesame plant has been lost in history, but evidence of the plant's cultivation goes as far back as the time of Prophet Moses. Asia and Africa are believed to be the earliest homes of the plant.

Animals in our life
Animals are living things that feed by eating other living things; they must also breathe taking oxygen from the air or from water. There are at least one million different species of animals, and more are discovered everyday.

Environmental Biotechnology Division
Searched out, for the environmental pollution especially caused by the industrial waste water. Research on a particular problem is carried out in collaboration with different industries and a tailor made process is developed and handed over.

Agri promotion, end to unemployment top agenda
Chief Minister Punjab Ch Pervaiz Ellahi, spelling out priorities of his government, said here on Wednesday that promotion of agriculture sector and elimination of unemployment through industrialisation are at the top of his agenda.

Growing olive trees
One of Pakistan's major imports being edible oil, the need to increase the production of this commodity locally cannot be over-emphasised.

Making rice more nutritious
Muhammad Ikram Ul Haq

The growing feed industry of Pakistan has always faced shortage of quality ingredients both of vegetable and animal origin. The production capacity of this industry has further broadened the gap between the demand and supply.

Protein in pulses
Protein is the most essential component of human diet. It is required for body growth and its repair for all ages. The best and important source is animal protein but it is too expensive, hence out of reach of commonman.

Protein in pulses
Protein is the most essential component of human diet. It is required for body growth and its repair for all ages. The best and important source is animal protein but it is too expensive, hence out of reach of commonman.

Developing dairy industry on proper lines
Milk processing plants are eligible for necessary incentives announced from time to time. These include duty- free imports of machinery and equipment and low-cost loans from banks. Producers are also allowed duty-free import of semen and embryo transplants of exotic breeds.

Water medication is safe and effective too
Water can be used to administer drugs quickly and effectively, especially to sick birds, since treatment can start immediately without waiting for the feed tank to empty or for feed to be mixed.

Quality of Punjab Wheat
The physico-chemical quality parameters test weight, moisture protein(dry basis) gluten and flour extraction are generally found in the ranges of 77-82 kg/hl, 8.5-9.5%, 12-14% , 28-36% and 69-72%, respectively.

Inoculating and pelleting pasture legume seed
Users of agricultural (or veterinary) chemical products must always read the label and any Permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any Permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the Permit by reason of any statement made or omitted to be made in this publication.

Organic Farming Facts
Organic agricultural production benefits the environment by using earth-friendly agricultural methods and practices. Here are some facts that show why organic farming is "the way to grow."

Food, Biotech Industries Feud Over Plans for Bio-Pharming
Scott Kilman

A fight is breaking out between the U.S. food and biotechnology industries over plans to genetically modify food crops to make drugs and chemicals.

The pros and cons of corporate farming
Ahmad Fraz Khan

The half-cooked idea of corporate farming has received special attention of the present regime, but it has evoked more fears than hopes among farmers. Corporate farming still remains a theory for both the government as well as farmers. None of the two parties concerned are sure as to what would be the final shape of the plan.

Asian rice scientists work on new green revolution
Asia's landscape would be incomplete without water buffaloes dragging heavy ploughs through water-logged paddy fields.

Communication and rural development
Prof Ibad Rashdi 

The term 'communication' generally refers to transfer of knowledge in a way that would enable recipient to understand, react to, and act upon the information received. 

Potassium: an essential nutrient
Ateeq Malik 

Agriculture worldwide faces a variety of challenges. In some regions, production must be expanded to provide food for growing populations, in other there are surpluses and agricultural production has to be matched to effective demand.

Weaving nature
Zahrah Nasir 

Pleaching is a cost-effective way of making boundary walls, writes Zahrah Nasir. The importance of boundary walls and fences and their role in creating unique ecosystems in your garden was stressed in an earlier article in this magazine, which prompted a few readers to enquire about other cost-efficient forms of 'boundaries'. 

Farm marketing and poverty reduction
Hammad Badar

At present the economy of Pakistan, besides many other problems, is grappling with the rising poverty problem, which is increasing persistently. As per the economic survey of Pakistan on the basis of caloric-based definition (headcount ratio), the poverty has increased from 22 per cent in 1992-93 to 28.2 per cent in 1998-99. 

Agriculture / Horticulture Awaran

The agricultural characteristics of Awaran are similar to those of Panjgur, Kharan, and Chaghi district. Wheat is the principal crop on which population of the district depends. In the north-west area of Mashkai most of the people consume dates or grain.

Exports of vegetables, fruits and the economy
Ziaul Haque Memon

Agriculture being the largest sector of Pakistan can help improve trade balance of payment. It's a large sector and requires to be analysed sectors wise especially few less touched areas. Therefore I have chosen fruits and vegetables sector.

Developing the rural mandis
Retrospectively, the concept of rural market is as old as human civilisation.
For a long time the significance of rural markets was least affected since the growers, because of lack of necessary marketing infrastructure like developed roads, means of transportation etc. had no alternative but to use the rural market places for the disposal of their produce.

Culligan Water: An essence of life
Culligan is one of the trusted name, for millions of people all over the world, in quality water.

Science and Technology
Much headway was made in scientific research and development, and industrialisation of research results. At the end of 2001, the State-owned enterprises and institutions nation-wide had 28.87 million professionals and technicians specialised in all disciplines.

Remarkable achievements in agriculture
The structure of crop cultivation was adjusted continuously. The area planted to grain crops decreased, compared with the year 2000.

An Introduction to Pakistan Council of Scientific
The Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) was established in 1953 with the prime objective of setting up research establishments in various parts of the country for undertaking scientific research for the utilisation of the indigenous raw materials and also on problems faced by the country's nascent industries.

Abrogation in the Holy Quran
This is a common feature of all the languages of the world that a certain directive is given and then it is explained or specified by another directive. This explanation or specification is never considered abrogation of the original command.

Good Ideas Are Growing: Are They Safe?
Rick Kralj
RD Extension Agent

Selective plant breeding is not a new concept. Selection of observed desirable traits by our ancestors essentially tamed wild plants and made them suitable for agriculture. Such selections have been used for over 10,000 years, since the beginning of agriculture.

No Evidence Cloned Animals Are Unsafe to Eat, But Data Still Lacking
The possibility of certain genetically engineered fish and other animals escaping and potentially introducing engineered genes into wild populations tops the list of concerns associated with advances in animal biotechnology, says a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. On the other hand, no evidence yet exists that products from cloned livestock are unsafe for human consumption, although the committee that wrote the report found it difficult to identify concerns without additional information about food composition, which could be collected using available analytical tests.

Production of true to type healthy nursery fruit plants
Key Charateristics of the Technology:
Production of good quality true to type fruit plants of desired varieties.
To get more number of plants from a small unit area.
Higher returns.

Who Benefits from Biotechnology?
We all have our biases and regardless of what anyone says, our biases influence our perspectives. As scientists we strive to eliminate our biases from our research but the very fact that we look at one issue and not another reveals our biases. What we should strive for is to control our biases and acknowledge them from the beginning.

Bio-Technology : Environmental Benefits
Biotechnology is used to strengthen a crop's own ability to defend itself against destructive insects, reducing and sometimes eliminating the need for chemical pesticides. The plants are given the genetic ability to produce a protein - toxic to certain insects - that is found in a common soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt.  

Salinity Tolerant Crop - HALOPHYTES
Salt deserts saline inland basins are being created, the former by a lack of fresh water, and the later by the rising level of saline groundwater, According to FAO data, a least 40% of the world is affected by salinisation in some form or the other.  

Benefits of Agricultural Biotechnology
Agricultural biotechnology improves crop plants by providing built-in protection against diseases and insects, and by instilling herbicide tolerance, which creates opportunities to produce more and better foods in a sustainable way. Following are some of the current benefits of biotechnology, and opportunities for the future. 

Virus free seed potato production through tissue culture
Key Charateristics of the Technology:
To get higher yields.
Reduce dependence of imports.
Increase the income of farmers.
Market the technology through private sector.

Improving cotton standards
Irfan Shahzad

The promulgation of the Cotton Standardization Ordinance (CSO), 2002 by the federal government is one of those policy measures, which should have been taken long ago. Cotton occupies a very unique and central position in the agriculture-based economy of Pakistan.

Exports of vegetables, fruits and the economy
Ziaul Haque Memon

Agriculture being the largest sector of Pakistan can help improve trade balance of payment. It's a large sector and requires to be analysed sectors wise especially few less touched areas. Therefore I have chosen fruits and vegetables sector.

The Transgenic Plant Market
Dr. Weck

Transgenic or genetically modified (GM) plants are contributing to many areas of industry, including increased crop production and enhanced food qualify in agriculture; production of monoclonal antibodies, therapeutic proteins, and edible vaccines for the pharmaceutical industry; and environmentally friendly outputs such as biodegradable plastics.  

Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Transgenic

Effective pesticides play a key role in the management of agriculture ecosystems. For example, control of Bollworm in cotton is currently dependent on the use of chemicals. Pesticide usage leads to chemical residues resulting in issues of occupational health and safety.  

Agro-forestry conducive for better crop production
Dr. Rashid A. Khan
Dr. Tahir Siddiqui
Shahid Hafeez

Due to the prevailing extreme climatic conditions, tree-crop inter-culture (agro-forestry) is indispensable for profitable farming in the country. Farmlands without trees become exposed to harsh edaphic, physiographic and climatic factors. Trees protect farm crops, ameliorate climatic conditions, lower down water table, redistribute nutrients in the soil profile and provide many other fringe benefits. 

Planning Guidelines for Veterinarians & Practice Owners
Dr. Terry Hall

Welcome everyone to Sunday Night Rounds. My name is Paul Pion. I am President and co-founder of VIN. I will help host this evening's session. Tonight Our topic is Financial Planning Guidelines for Veterinarians and Practice Owners.

Development of an Appropriate Technology for Enhancing Nutritional
Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The basic reason for poor productivity of dairy nimals in Pakistan is the limited supply of good quality fodders in sufficient amount. That is why our dairy animals are fed diets high in cereal straws (wheat straw, rice straw, corncobs etc) The carbohydrates of these straws are of low igestibility less than 40%) and they are usually low in crude protein and often deficient in minerals required by animals.

Principles of Agricultural Sustainability
John M. Gerber

The lack of a commonly agreed upon definition for sustainable agriculture is believed by some to be an impediment to meaningful dialogue. I suggest that sustainable agriculture should not be understood as a specific agricultural practice, technology or system.

New ways for an ancient science. (animal husbandry)
Caird E., Jr. Rexroad

Long before the world knew of science in the modern sense, there was husbandry - the scientific control and management of a specified branch of farming - at least in the production of livestock.

The Natural Way of Farming
Kirby Fry

When we create a garden and are mindful of the plants growing in it, we ourselves grow from being in closer contact with the same natural cycles affecting the plants. The budding flower unfurls its spring banner before us, the heavy fruit heralds the end of a growing season and the withered stalk whispers of seasons past and yet to come.

Introduction to Permaculture

Jack Rowe

Permaculture is a mixed perennial and annual food agroforestry system which works cooperatively with, rather than coercively against, Nature to incorporate and interweave the natural life cycles, habits, and needs of food plants and animals into ecologically balanced food-producing ecosystems. Permaculture bases food production on renewable resources, capture of available energies, and multi-level, multi-species, multi-use food ecosystem "restoration."

Useful tips for wheat production

The country has been divided into twelve different production zones. The zoning is mainly based on disease prevalence, yield potential, cropping pattern and climatological factors (zones are shown on the map).

The organised food sector, Improving quality and marketing
Lubna Khalid

Growing confidence in the economy is making companies invest in the upgrading of plant and equipment, a positive sign in the economic environment. National Foods Ltd. is famous for its quality products. Recently, they inaugurated their warehouses at Bin Qasim. In this regard, I met Abrar Hasan, their young and enterprising CEO, and put a few questions to him to determine their future plans and confidence in Pakistan's economy.

Natural antioxidants in avian nutrition and reproduction

(Book Review)
Peter F. Surai

In recent years, research on natural antioxidants has been developing rapidly. However, this development has been almost exclusively associated with medical sciences in relation to human health. In this respect, the roles of natural antioxidants in animal nutrition in general and in avian nutrition and reproduction in particular need further understanding.

Tissue culture: a getaway to genetic engineering
Dr. Azra Quraishi

Plant tissue culture is the regeneration of plants from bacteria-free plant parts. These are grown on artificial nutritive media under controlled environmental conditions. Tissue culture is essentially vegetative or asexual reproduction. It is a simple and a straightforward component of biotechnology which has a proven potential to deliver virus-free plants, enhance propagation rates and enrich genetic diversity in reduced time spans.

Information technology and the future
Mehmood-Ul-Hassan Khan

Information Technology (IT) is not a choice but a necessity. It is an integral part of our strategy to survive and, hopefully, to prosper in a complicated world. The government is taking every possible step to institutionalise the traditions of IT in all the sectors in the country. Recently an Information Technology Commerce Network (ITCN) Asia 2002 Conference has been staged in the city of Karachi. The main focus of that conference was to attract foreign investment in the IT sector.

Grading in marketing
Grading is required at many stages of marketing of both raw material and processed products. The size and quality may vary, It is,therefore, imperative to sort the products into lots which is called grading or standardization. Thus grading ensures the uniformity of products.

To improve knowledge and trans. of world animal health
One of the main missions of the OIE is to improve knowledge of as well as the transparency of the world animal health situation.

World animal health status
Trends in the various epizootics and the distribution of outbreaks in 1998 and early 1999 Press Release dated 21 May 1999 in Paris, France. The 67th annual General Session of the International Committee of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), held in Paris from 17 to 21 May this year, marked the 75th anniversary of this international organisation which has been monitoring world animal health since 1924 from its headquarters in Paris.

Pre-Feasibility : Calve Fattening Farm
Beef fattening project is an agricultural enterprise where young calves of average ten to fifteen months age are reared for a period of three months (90days). The live-weight of the animal is around 160 kilograms. Animals are fed on high protein ration with a mixture of green fodder or silage. The average daily weight gains vary between 0.6 - 1.2 kg depending on the feed nutrition, health and breed of animal.

Agri models for higher productivity
Many new models, machines and methods are being put to use to achieve high agricultural productivity in various Asian countries.

Soil and Water Conservation Act. in Rained Areas of Punjab
The Directorate of Soil Conservation is engaged to tackle the problem of soil erosion for the last four decades and has the jurisdiction in the rainfed areas of Punjab extending from the Districts of Narowal to Districts of D.G.Khan and Rajanpur.

Corn desirable sowing time varies
Spring is the most suitable season for growing corn, moong beans and sunflower. The corn has been introduced into the old world from the new one like many other crops, for example upland cotton, tomato, potato, and tobacco.

Saudi Agriculture
Saudi Arabia's commitment to further agricultural development, the upgrading and expansion of its existing infrastructure and new project investment continues to provide a dynamic market for manufacturers and suppliers of agriculture technology.

Systematic Analysis of Embryo Temperature
A consequence of the ongoing selection of high yield breeds is the increased variability in hatchability of eggs from flocks of different ages. Eggs from young and old breeders differ significantly with respect to size, egg shell conductance and heat production.

Citrus fruit crop in Punjab
Pakistan as a nation produces about 8 per cent of the world's citrus fruits but sells out only 0.5 per cent of its harvest abroad. These fruits are grown nearly in all the four provinces in varying proportions. But then the product is concentrated in Punjab which grows 95 per cent of the national output. And it is the Sargodha business which alone accounts for 70 per cent of the provincial production.

The way ahead for organic food and farming
A 21-point Action Plan to help the home-grown organic food and farming sector develop sustainable has been published this week by the UK's department of environment, food and rural affairs (DEFRA).

Rural livestock production in Pakistan
Muhammad Younas and Muhammad Yaqoob

Livestock production is the second biggest economic activity after crop husbandry for rural population in the country. Out of 137 million people in the country, more than 92 million (67% live in the rural areas.

The quality of water- We use
M Moaeen ud Din, M Younas and M Yaqoob

In the solar system, earth is the only planet with life. The existence of life is just in virtue of water. On earth, water constitutes 60-95 % of the body weight of living organisms. Human being can lead a life without food for 3 to 4 weeks but without water not more than 3 to 4 days.

Changing growth pattern in agri sector
Given vulnerability to natural vagaries, the crop sub-sector is gradually losing its share in agriculture. It declined from 65.1 percent in FY 91 to 57.3 percent in FY 01. As against this the livestock share rose to 37.7 percent from 29.8 percent during this period.

Role of organic matter in soil
Dr. Nazir Hussain

Organic matter is one of the major constituents of soil among the other three, solid material, water and air. The microbial life in the soil which has to perform many important functions like; conversion of plant nutrients into available form, conserving the applied fertilizers and all the chemical changes etc. is only active in the presence of organic matter.

Save the Dairy sector-Save Rs. 1043 Billion per anum
M. Subhan Qureshi, Ph.D

Utilization of science as a tool for development of economies of nations, has divided the world into two components, the developing and the developed world. The formers have ignored their natural resources while the laters have exploited them upto maximum capacity.

How to enhance rice exports
Pakistan is one of the best basmati rice producers of the world yet it has failed to capture the big markets. During the last decade or so, Pakistan has shown regression in every progressing rice market as the overall rice market grew, but Pakistan has been staggering with uncertain ups and downs while the Indian Basmati rice has achieved a tangible growth.

New Research in Live Stock

  • "Attempts at Developing Cell Lines for Marek's Disease Virus"
  • New Pathogenic Reovirus Emerges In Europe
  • Moisture Bad For Egg Safety
  • Diagnostic Test For Coccidiosis Developed
  • Test detects immune-modifying poultry protein
  • Astrovirus Very Resistant To Disinfectants

Fruit, vegetable processing industry
One would be wonder-struck to know that the number of fruit and vegetable processing units in the country at the time of independence was as high as 255, according to the official records of the Department of Industry of the defunct provincial Government of West Pakistan.

Sustaining farm production under water crisis
Waqar Abbas

Over the past two to three years, our agriculture is faced with a serious problem - water shortaage. The question is, 'can we sustain our agriculture under the conditions we are facing today?' The answer to this, in my opinion, is yes. We can hopefully do it.

Indian Poultry Industry Current Status And Future Prospects
In terms of international ranking, India is fourth in production of eggs 
and nineteenth in broiler production. Despite such growth, annual per 
capita consumption of egg and meat in the country is low at 
approximately 33 eggs and 700 g of meat.

Basic reasons of failure of silage production in Pakistan
In Pakistan the livestock industry has to face two severe fodder scarcity periods (May-June and October-November) that has a big effect on animal production. Conserving the surplus fodder in the form of silage and using it during shortage periods can avoid these problems.

Do you want to grow a disease free flock ?
It is a dream of every poultry farmer that his flocks go treble free, disease free, and and providing maximum profit. I am sure that this dream can be true to life. The question will be HOW ?.

Managing the risk of rinderpest to Afghanistan and Pakistan
There is growing confidence that Asian rinderpest is now limited to the Indus River buffalo tract of Sindh Province in Pakistan. The movement from Pakistan to Afghanistan of cattle and buffaloes for slaughter and agricultural reconstruction creates a  relatively low but none-the-less significant risk of resurgence of rinderpest in the two countries and beyond.

Water Shortage is no more a problem for farmers
This ARTICLE is to brief you the characteristics of a wonder product Qemisoyl (Water Retention Aid for Crops, Parks & Horticulture) & its possible use under current scenario of Water Crisis in Pakistan.

Tech. of Brackish water Utilization for Agri. purposes
In view of the scarcity of canal water and scanty rainfalls, the importance of brackish water has increased manifold. This is the only alternative to meet the severe shortfalls of irrigation water occurring in the recent years.

New irrigation technology holds big promise
Most of the land area of Pakistan is classified as arid to semi-arid because rainfall is not sufficient to grow agricultural crops, forest and fruit plants and pastures.

Full grown plants from tiny bits of leaves
Tissue culture, in simple terms, is the science of growing plant cells, tissues or organs isolated from the mother plant, on artificial media.

• Growing cotton in prevailing drought
• Electricity From Wind
• Drip; sprinkler irrigation system to be introduced
• Marigold poor man's saffron
• Neem The wonder tree
• Oil seeds: problems and potential
• Economic of Bee keeping
• Trout farming: a potential source of income
• Let the sunflower shine
• New variety of wheat 
• New variety of sugarcane
• Growing cotton under water constraint
• Wheat: Planning for better yield
• Seed borne diseases of wheat
• Complete guide to start  a Fish Farm
• Cotton Production Technology
• CCIR recommendations for better cotton crop management
• Marketing livestock products
• Biotechnology and Future Energy: Bio-Fuel
• The effect of ingredient texture, form and freshness on..
• Pothwar's agricultural potential
• The Use of gypsum for sodic soils
• Rural and wildlife conservation
• EC alerts fish exporters
• Quality wool production;