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PPA (Punjab Zone)      Jan 17 2012

Chicken  Live, Broiler Live: Rs.176.00 Cull Birds (live): Rs 92 per kilo
Eggs  Per crate of 30 dzns Rs.3360-05  Retail  115 per Dzn

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Science and technology have made for great expansion of the poultry industry in recent years. Current world average expansion of egg production is 3 to 4 % annually. Most nutrition programs can be improved by the inclusion of eggs and / or poultry meat. Poultry products are of the highest nutritional quality.
  News Channel

July 2004

  Scientists unlock secret of deadly Spanish Flu.
A team of British scientists has revealed how a bird flu virus that emerged in 1918 became the most deadly infection in history.

The lethal turning point came when the Spanish Flu virus altered its surface structure, making it capable of infecting humans as well as birds.

It went on to sweep rapidly across the world, felling young people in their prime and claiming up to 50 million lives.

Experts monitoring the current outbreaks of avian, or bird flu, in Asia are terrified of a similar pandemic occurring again.

The World Health Organisation has recorded 15 human deaths so far in Vietnam and Thailand. However, the virus does not seem to be passing from person to person.

A team of British scientists has described for the first time the three-dimensional shape of the 1918 virus's most potent weapon - proteins that dot its surface and allow it to invade cells.

The spike-like hemagglutinins (HA) lock onto particular receptor molecules on the surface of cells in the lungs. Until now the true nature of these all important proteins was unknown.

Sir John Skehel and colleagues at the Medical Research Council's national Institute for Medical Research - where the first human influenza virus was identified in 1933 - studied genetic material from samples taken from Spanish Flu victims in the United States.

Using a technique called X-ray crystallography, they worked out the virus's HA structure and saw that it had mutated.

Human and avian virus hemagglutinins normally interact with different cell receptors, making it difficult for bird flu to infect people. But the 1918 virus HA had changed, making it able to attach either to bird or human cells and allowing rapid human-to-human transmission.

Because immune systems were not adapted to bird flu the virus proved exceptionally deadly, wiping out up to 70 per cent of victims in some communities, including many people aged 15 to 34.

Sir John, whose findings were reported in the journal Science, said, "This paper is important because of the knowledge it brings about how these viruses, which originate in birds, can jump to humans. This allows us to track and monitor the changes in the virus for public health purposes, even though it does not allow us to predict or prevent future forms of flu."

An American group writing in Science also reported work on the virus. The team led by Professor Ian Wilson, from the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California, determined the structure of the precursor protein that becomes HA.

The US researchers also found evidence of the way the binding molecules were designed to interact with human proteins.

They compared the 1918 virus to others that normally infect humans, birds and pigs.

Professor Wilson said, "It looks more like an avian virus - with some human characteristics."

All the worst human flu outbreaks of the 20th century were caused by viruses that came from birds.

The most devastating was the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918, but Asian Flu in 1957 and Hong Kong Flu in 1968 also claimed many lives.

Sir John pointed out that the bird flu virus now causing concern in Vietnam, Thailand and China was not the same as the one responsible for the 1918 pandemic. It had a form of hemagglutinin known as H5, whereas the 1918 virus was an H1 strain.

While the new work helped scientists know more about the transmission of infections from birds to humans, "it will not have an immediate impact on the situation currently unfolding in the Far East", he said.

Scientists hope to improve their understanding of the 1918 pandemic still further by exhuming the body of a 20-year-old British victim.

Phyllis Burn, an Army officer's daughter was buried in a cemetery in Twickenham, south of London, 85 years ago.

She was laid to rest in a lead coffin which, if properly sealed, would have been virtually airtight. Scientists hope her internal organs may be sufficiently preserved to allow tissue samples to be taken from her lungs.

Fresh bird flu outbreak kills 5,000 fowls in Vietnam
Bird flu has recurred in Vietnam, killing about 5,000 fowls, an official told Xinhua Wednesday.

"Tests conducted in the regional veterinary centre in Ho Chi Minh City have confirmed that all the fowls were tested positive for an H5 strain of bird flu," said Nguyen Phuc Tai, director of the veterinary department of Bac Lieu province.

The fowls from two farms and a household have died since June 25, he said, adding that the province has culled all of the infected fowls in an effort to contain the virus.

Reasons for the bird flu's return in the locality are being studied, Tai said.

To deal with the current situation, Bac Lieu will re-establish a steering committee on bird flu and tighten controls.

In Bac Lieu province, which has a poultry population of 1.4 million, nearly 900,000 fowls died or were culled during the bird flu outbreak earlier this year.

Vietnam was reported to face a high risk of the relapse of bird flu last week as 13 localities in the country still had avian influenza viruses, mainly in ducks.

The government has allowed the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to conduct a $7.6 million project to overcome the aftermath of the bird flu outbreak.

Bird flu mutating into deadlier threat: study
A frightening strain of bird flu that can kill people is mutating into an ever more deadly form in ducks and needs to be controlled quickly, US and Chinese researchers have reported.

They found steady changes in the so-called H5N1 virus infecting flocks of apparently healthy ducks made the virus more likely to kill mammals such as mice and perhaps people.

"Our findings suggest that immediate action is needed to prevent the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the apparently healthy ducks into chickens or mammalian hosts," the researchers write in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The H5N1 virus was first seen in Hong Kong in 1997 and has reappeared in South East Asia, killing 24 people in Vietnam and Thailand this year.

Whenever it appears in poultry, officials move quickly to destroy the birds to prevent its spread.

Unlike ordinary influenza, so far H5N1 cannot be spread from person to person, so it does not cause human epidemics.

But flu experts say the virus, which mutates quickly, could acquire this ability at any time.

Hualan Chen of the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute and colleagues analysed 21 different samples of the H5N1 bird flu virus taken from healthy flocks of ducks in southern China between 1999 and 2002.

They inoculated groups of chickens, mice, and ducks with virus samples taken in different years.

The ducks never got sick, but most of the virus samples made chickens ill and killed them.

The key issue is mice, which are mammals like humans and more likely to react as humans do.

"We observed an increasing level of pathogenicity to mice with the progression of time," the researchers wrote.

"Viruses isolated in 1999 and 2000 were less pathogenic (deadly) to mice than those isolated in 2001 and 2002," they added.

They found some expected changes in genes associated with how deadly a virus is and said their findings suggest the virus is evolving.

To date more than 100 million birds have been culled or have died from bird flu, which experts suspect was spread across Asia by migratory birds or wild fowl.

Different strains are infecting flocks around the world but the H5N1 strain is the one that most worries health experts

Certain antibiotics may rapidly contaminate egg albumen during the process of its formation.
Egg white formation occurs in 3 phases: synthesis and storage of albumen proteins prior to ovulation, secretion of proteins during passage of the ovum down the reproductive tract (preplumping) and addition of water (plumping phase). 2. This study was to determine if oxytetracycline would transfer into egg albumen during the latter 2 phases of albumen formation. 3. In 2 experiments 48 hens were injected with either 400 mg/kg oxytetracycline or physiological saline. Hens were dosed at 0·5 h (preplumping phase) or 5·5 h (plumping phase) after oviposition. 4. Five hours following injections, hens were euthanised and albumen was collected from the reproductive tract. 5. Oxytetracycline transferred into albumen during both phases of albumen formation. Concentrations (ppm) were greater in the preplump vs plump phase (3·2 vs 1·8 in experiment 1; or 2·8 vs 1·6 in experiment 2. However, when differences in albumen weights were accounted for, total ΅g transfer did not differ between the 2 phases. 6. Drugs may transfer into egg whites during the latter phases of formation prior to oviposition. Therefore, poultry producers or veterinary practitioners dosing laying hens must consider that egg whites contained in the 1st egg laid after dosing may contain drug residues.

Effect of Lactose and Dried Whey Supplementation on Growth Performance and Histology of the Immune System in Broilers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactose and dried whey supplementation as dietary component on growth performance and histology of lymphoid organs and ileum in broilers. A total of 480 day-old chicks were utilised for 42 days. Animals were assigned randomly to one of three treatments: control, lactose (2.5%), and dried whey (3.85%). Body weight was greater for animals supplemented with lactose or dried whey than for those not supplemented. There were no effects of treatments on feed intake and feed efficiency. In general, the effects of lactose or dried whey supplementation on histology of lymphoid organs and ileum were variable. Plasma cell counts were lower for animals supplemented with lactose than for those supplemented with dried whey. However, the length of intestinal villi during the starter period was greater for experimental groups than for control group.

Stiffer Protein Rules
Canadian food safety officials are said to be considering a total ban on ruminant protein – cattle and sheep – from all livestock feed. Some researchers believe that bovine spongiform encephalopathy is spread from animal to animal through abnormal proteins – prions – in the feed. The prions contaminate the feed when ruminant protein – meat and bone byproduct meal – is mixed in feed as a protein source.

Ruminant protein has been banned from cattle and sheep feed in Canada and the United States since 1997. Currently in Canada – as well as in the United States – feed manufacturers and livestock producers can feed rations containing ruminant protein to non-ruminants – mainly pigs and poultry. However, there are fears that pig and poultry feed containing ruminant protein could be accidentally fed to cattle or sheep of poultry litter containing spilled poultry feed could be fed to cattle or sheep and spread the disease.

Brian Evans, chief veterinarian with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.said the proposed ban on feeding ruminant protein to swine and poultry is part of the Agency’s efforts to ensure any lingering cases of BSE are eliminated from the domestic cattle herd. “Our current feed ban is sound,” Evans said.

The discussion of an extended feed ban is part of consultations that CFIA is conducting with provincial governments and USDA on steps the two countries can take to strengthen the BSE prevention aspects of feed regulations. CFIA spokesman Jeff Meerman told MeatNews that the proposed ban is only one option that the Agency is considering as a tool for stopping the spread of BSE and to allay foreign market fears of the brain-wasting disease. He added that any decision will be based on the current science and practicality. One potential problem if Canada extends the ban and the United States doesn’t is the movement of cattle offal to U.S. rendering plants. Some offal contains high-risk material such as brains, spinal cords, and lymph tissue. Currently, rules enacted after Canada discovered its first case of BSE in May 2003 ban Canadian beef offal from being exported to the U.S.

Officials are also looking at barring the use of cattle brain and nerve system tissue in swine and poultry feeds. The discussions between CFIA and USDA are in advance of a new international code of practice for livestock feeding being developed by OIE, the international veterinary organization

Is it safe to eat poultry from areas affected by avian influenza?
There is no public health risk associated with the consumption of cooked poultry meat or eggs as a result of these cases.

Health Canada advises that poultry products and eggs from areas experiencing an outbreak of avian flu do not pose a risk to human health for avian flu. The virus is known to be killed at temperatures above 72ΊC, however, Health Canada recommends cooking whole poultry to 85ΊC and other poultry products and eggs to 74ΊC to ensure microbial food safety.

What is avian influenza?

Avian influenza is a contagious viral infection that can affect all species of birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, pet birds and wild birds). In intensive poultry rearing systems, young fattening turkeys and laying hens are usually the most affected species.

Wild birds may carry influenza viruses without becoming ill due to natural resistance. Wild waterfowl present a natural reservoir for these viruses and can be responsible for the primary introduction of infection into domestic poultry. Signs of the disease range from a mild infection with no symptoms to a severe epidemic that kills up to 100 percent of infected birds.

Is avian influenza transmissible to humans?

In rare instances people can contract avian flu. To date, the H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 subtypes of the avian influenza virus have been known to cause illness in people, with H5N1 associated with the most serious illness in humans.

To date, two people have been infected with avian influenza. Both cases of infection followed close contact with infected poultry and contaminated materials and resulted in mild symptoms. Both people have fully recovered.

Are more cases of human illness possible?

The culling operation in British Columbia (Canada) is an extensive one so it is likely that we'll see more confirmed infections. Given this possibility, antiviral drugs are recommended for workers in contact with infected chickens or contaminated materials. Health Canada has provided occupational health and safety advice to the CFIA. Currently, workers must have received the current flu vaccine and antivirals and training on the use of personal protective equipment before working with the high risk flocks.

Has the H7 virus ever infected humans?

Most recently, the H7N2 virus was detected in poultry in Delaware and did not cause illness in humans. An outbreak of H7N7 in the Netherlands in 2003 resulted in one death and over 80 cases of mild disease in people. The vast majority of these cases exhibited conjunctivitis, and some of them displayed mild influenza-like illness.

Senior Farm Manager
Olympia Poultry Farms
0992 370465

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