(Prunus amygdalus) is one of the important stone fruit grown
in Pakistan. It is also included in nuts according to its usage. It
is very delicious with high nutritional value because of its oil
contents. Almond is a high value crop and one of the most
non-perishable nut fruit. When dried it can easily be kept for a
year or even more. Its market demand is always there. Previously, it
was grown mainly in Baluchistan province. However, with the
introduction of early ripening varieties, this has now become
possible to grow the crop in comparatively dry areas of Pothwar
tract where ever soil irrigation is available.
nuts have a great value both from consumer as well as from grower
side. One of the main reasons being its limited production sites.
However, with the identification of new varieties, crop can be grown
on vast areas of Pothwar tracts. Hence, its production is likely to
all being non-perishable nut, has great export potential. It can be
exported as a dried nut as well as in form of presentable,
attractive packs of roasted kernels to Middle East and Europe
Jordonala, Non Parral, Mission, Utra
Ktha, Kaghzi, Quetta Selection
Planting and Growth:
Suitable age of nursery plant for transplanting: 1
to 1.5 years
Time for Transplanting: Jan.
Time to start of bearing: 3-4
Time to full production: 5-6
Normal economic bearing life: 10-15
Time of annual flowering: Feb.
Time of harvest: Sept.
should be prepared in Nov./Dec. 1-2 months before transplanting.
Almonds are self sterile and therefore farmers need to plant one
pollenizer per 10 fruit trees in the orchard. The pollenizer will be
a different variety to the main crop so that it will fertilize the
flowers of the main crops. Farmers should have technical guidance to
select the pollenisers. Pollenisers should be spread uniformly
through the orchard. Planting should be on a square pattern.
6.5 x 6.5 m (20 x 20')
Immediately after transplanting, plants are headed back to a height
of 45-50 cm. The tree should be left with 3-4 well spread branches
as a frame on which to train/shape the trees to a modified leader
One year old wood is pruned each year in Dec./Jan. when tree is
This is only necessary if the tree is too heavily loaded. An
indication of this is when branches are weighed down with the fruit
and liable to break. Thinning should not be more than 20% of fruit.
Thinning will improve the quality of fruit. It can be done
mechanically through shaking, by hands, with sticks or applying
is possible when trees are young, upto 3-4 years old. Berseem, and
onion are suitable intercrops. Excessive irrigation of intercrops
may harm the fruit trees.
Annual waster requirements
2 to 2.5 m.
Allowable depletion of soil water in the root zone:
Range of application depth of water
Irrigation intervals: 10-15
periods most sensitive to water shortages are flowering (Feb &
Mar) and fruit development (April, May and June).
preferred method of irrigation is a basin around each tree the size
of the canopy above. There should be channels connecting the basins
so that irrigation of the trees scan be independent of the
intercropped area between. the season for this is that the trees and
the intercrops require different amounts of water.
Apply FYM around each tree at rate of 15-30 kg/tree. each
winter season (Dec. to Jan.)
Apply 3 kg SSP and 1 to 1.5 kg Urea per tree before flowering
S(Dec. to Jan.) Irrigate immediately to incorporate fertilizer.
to 1.5 kg Urea per tree should best applied after fruit setting and
before fruit attains 50% size (April to May). This should be
immediately incorporated through irrigation.
These are the main pest. They attack leaves and fresh shoots and
young fruit of trees. Apply Dimecron @ 1 to 1.5 litre in 100 liters
of water per acre. This should be sprayed onto the trees. Choose
windless days and follow safely precautions.
almonds are ripe, the hulls shrivel, crack, open and separate from
the shell. After being hulled, the nuts are dried in the sun in
shallow bags until the kernels can be broken without bending. After
being dried they are bleached lightly in sulphur fumes to retain a
golden yellow colour in the shell and are graded, after which they
are stored in a cool, dry place to prevent them from becoming
rancid. Well dried nuts may keep in such a place for more than a
year. The almonds are also salted and roasted, usually skins are
removed before roasting. Almonds are also eaten before they dry,
when the embryos first fill the seed coats. This gives a milky