OF POTATO IN PAKISTAN
Over the years, potato has become an important crop for both
farmers and consumers in Pakistan.
It is the fourth most important crop by volume of
production, it is high yielding, having a high nutritive value
and gives high returns to farmers.
From around 3,000 Ha. At the time of independence, the area
under production increased to around 107000 ha.
During the same period the average yields rose from
around 9 in 1947 to 20 MT per ha. Pakistan
is self-sufficient in potatoes for household consumption and
relies for more than 99% on locally produced seed potatoes.
Presently, it is estimated that the total annual domestic
production amounts to around 1.8 Million MT, of which 280000 MT
is used as seed and 1.8 Million MT is available for consumption
after post harvest losses.
With a population of roughly 132 Million, this accounts
to 9.3 Kg per Capita per annum.
The recent large increase in acreage was reached by an
intensification of the cultivation in existing potato growing
areas, as well as by introduction of the crop in new areas and
to inexperienced farmers. Hence,
many problems, like diseases and pests, became more hazardous
and a large number of farmers are lacking knowledge of the right
cultivation technique. These
include pests and disease control, land preparation and
irrigation, fertilizer application, crop rotation and
The lack of credit facilities to purchase inputs creates
difficulties, in particular for small farmers, inhibiting their
effort to raise productivity.
High quality costly seed forms another constraint.
The seed contributes to about 35-40% of the total cost of
production in Pakistan. Formal
certified seed production is limited and faces technical,
economical and managerial problems.
Lack of availability of sufficient quantities of good
seed and low purchasing power of the farmers, forces them to
rely on seed sources of doubtful quality or own production, for
which most of them do not have the proper skills.
Poor post harvest handling, including transport and storage
practices, causes unnecessary damage and losses and reduction of
consumption quality. Sufficient
cold store space is available in Pakistan.
The handling of potatoes in storage is unsatisfactory and
poorly managed. Finally,
the farmers and consumers are faced with serve cyclical
fluctuations in price, as production moves from glut to
shortage, so preventing the farmers from enjoying a reliable
income and inhibiting the consumer from including potato as a
regular staple part in his diet.
and production of potatoes in Pakistan:
|| YIELD. TONNES/ HA.
From 1984-85 to 1997-98. Agricultural
Statistics of Pakistan,
1997-98, MINFAL, Islamabad.
Final estimate for 1998-99 Punjab, Sindh and NWFP provided by
Provincial Agriculture Department and for Balochistan,
minutes of 72 meeting of
Shares in Area and production.
NWFP and Balochistan respectively account for 83, 1, 10 and 6
percent of the total area and 83,1,9 and 7 percent of the
production of potatoes in the country.
The shares of
Autumn, Spring and Summer crops in the annual production are
estimated at 75,10 and 15 percent, respectively.
Potato Production Districts.
of Okara, Sahiwal, Kasur, Sialkot, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Lahore,
Narowal, Pakpattan, Gujranwala, T.T. Singh and Khanewal from the
Punjab, Nowshera, Dir and Mansehra from the NWFP and Pishin,
Killa Saifulla and Kalat from Balochistan are important potato
growing districts, accounting among themselves for 78 percent of
the total production of the crop.
in Area, Yield and Production.
Long Term Changes:- 1988-89 to 1998-99.
production during the ten year period between 1988-89 to 1998-99
is estimated to have increased @ 8.19 percent per annum on
account of 4.09 percent annual expansion in its area and 3.9
lion’s share in potato production i.e. 85 percent comes from
Punjab, where Autumn and Spring crops are raised.
Total production in the Punjab is estimated to have
increased @ 9.82 percent per annum due to increases of 4.88 and
4.74 percent in area and yield, respectively.
Sindh, area and yield of potatoes have increased by 2.38 and
1.50 percent resulting in production increase of 4 percent per
conditions in the NWFP are conducive to grow all three crops of
production from these crops has increased @ 4 percent on account
of 1.91 expansion
in area and 2 percent rise in yield.
Balochistan, only Summer crop is cultivated.
The production in this province has diminished @ 1.70
percent every year because the area under the crop has
contracted @ 1.88 percent.
POTATO GROWING SEASONS
POTATO VARIETIES BEING GROWN IN PAKISTAN
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTES/ORGANIZATIONS
IN SEED POTATO PRODUCTION
Culture, NARC. -
Jaffar Brothers Ltd.
Virology, Faisalabad. -
Research Centre, Abbottabad. -
Jabbar Combined International.
- Potato Seed
Unit, Deptt. Of Agri. Gilgit. -
Gilgit Area Marketing Association.
- VSSPP, Quetta.
- Nangaparbat Potato Growers Association.
- Punjab Seed
AVAILABILITY OF QUALITY SEED:
Rapid degeneration of quality seed due to its
multiplication in spring season which is full of virus vector
Total quantity of imported seed and about 30-40% (1500
tonmnes) of locally produced certified seed has to pass through
spring season for further multiplication.
of fungal diseases.
Late blight (Phytophthora
infestans) was found major yield
limiting factor in high hills and is also a serious
problem in plains, it may reduce the yield up to 70%.
with Mycoplasma Pathogens:
mycoplasma was found a serious problem in major potato growing
areas of Punjab. 45%
reduction in yeidl was recorded in research trials.
Monocropping in hilly
areas and lack of crop rotation in other potato growing areas of
Pakistan ane major causes for spread of soil borne diseases.
Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Scab and Softrot.
of high yielding and disease resistance clones.
No proper gene
pool is available in the country.
of coordination in seed producing agencies.
There is very little coordination among public and private seed
agro-ecological zones for potato production.
Irrigated plains of Sindh, Southern Punjab and
plains of Central Punjab and South East NWFP.
and rainfed plains of NWFP and Northern Punjab.
lower valleys of NWFP.
high valleys and hill sides of NWFP, Northern Punjab and Azad
high valleys of NWFP, Northern Areas around Chillas and Azad
high valleys of Northern Areas and NWFP around Mastuj.
high valleys of Balochistan, South and North Waziristan.